Background and purpose of the study: Herbal enhancers compared to the synthetic ones have shown less toxis effects. Coumarins have been shown at concentrations inhibiting phospoliphase C-Y (Phc-Y) are able to enhance tight junction (TJ) permeability due to hyperpoalation of Zonolous Occludense-1 (ZO-1) proteins. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the influence of ethanolic extract of Angelica archengelica (AA-E) which contain coumarin on permeation of repaglinide across rat epidermis and on the tight junction plaque protein ZO-1 in HaCaT cells.
Methods: Transepidermal water loss (TEWL) from the rat skin treated with different concentrations of AA-E was assessed by Tewameter. Scanning and Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM) on were performed on AA-E treated rat skin portions. The possibility of AA-E influence on the architecture of tight junctions by adverse effect on the cytoplasmic ZO-1 in HaCaT cells was investigated. Finally, the systemic delivery of repaglinide from the optimized transdermal formulation was investigated in rats.
Results: The permeation of repaglinide across excised rat epidermis was 7-fold higher in the presence of AA-E (5% w/v) as compared to propylene glycol:ethanol (7:3) mixture. The extract was found to perturb the lipid microconstituents in both excised and viable rat skin, although, the effect was less intense in the later. The enhanced permeation of repaglinide across rat epidermis excised after treatment with AA-E (5% w/v) for different periods was in concordance with the high TEWL values of similarly treated viable rat skin. Further, the observed increase in intercellular space, disordering of lipid structure and corneocyte detachment indicated considerable effect on the ultrastructure of rat epidermis. Treatment of HaCaT cell line with AA-E (0.16% w/v) for 6 hrs influenced ZO-1 as evidenced by reduced immunofluorescence of anti-TJP1 (ZO-1) antibody in Confocal Laser Scanning Microscopy studies (CLSM) studies. The plasma concentration of repaglinide from transdermal formulation was maintained higher and for longer time as compared to oral administration of repaglinide.
Major conclusion: Results suggest the overwhelming influence of Angelica archengelica in enhancing the percutaneous permeation of repaglinide to be mediated through perturbation of skin lipids and tight junction protein (ZO-1).