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Mitra Tabari, Hengame Saffarcherati, Vahid Soltankarimi, Zahra Bani Ameri, Arash Poorsattar Bejeh Mir,
Volume 24, Issue 4 (28 2012)

Background and Aims: A large number of investigations have revealed that physical and chemical alterations and weight loss could occur in composite materials exposed to acidic phosphate fluoride (APF) gel. The purpose of this study was to assess the microleakage of a fissure sealant and a flow composite exposed to acidulated phosphate fluoride (APF) gel.

Materials and Methods: In this in vitro study, 60 intact human extracted premolar teeth were used. After preparing the occlusal groove, the teeth were divided into two groups (n=30). Teeth were filled with either Helioseal fissure sealant (Vivadent, Germany) or Tetric flow composite (Vivadent, Germany). After that, each group was divided into two subgroups (n=15): 1.23% APF gel (Sultan, U.S.A) was applied in the case subgroups, while control subgroups were preserved in normal saline solution. All of teeth were covered with 2 layers of nail varnish except for the filling zone and 1mm around the border of filling. After submerging in 0.5% fushin solution, specimens were sectioned bucco-lingually. Then dye penetration through the filling and fissure sealant was assessed by means of a stereo-microscope. The depth of dye penetration was scored. The data were analyzed using One-way ANOVA and Levene test.

Results: The mean values of dye penetration were 1.26±1.09, 1.4±1.05, 1.2±1.37, and 1.4±1.35 for fissure sealant+gel, composite+gel, composite+normal saline, and normal saline groups, respectively. No significant difference was found in inter-groups (P=0.96).

Conclusion: Considering the result of the present research, APF gel had no significant effect on the microleakage of Tetric flow composite filling and Helioseal fissure sealant and thus, it can be applied for routine usage.

Hossein Afshar, Ahmadreza Shamshiri, Vahid Pourtalebi Firozabadi, Zahra Bani Ameri,
Volume 25, Issue 4 (9 2013)

Background and Aims: Nursing Caries (NC) is a destructive form of caries because of incorrect nutritional habits in infants that affects deciduous teeth after eruption. Familiarity with the pattern of this type of caries and evaluation of its symmetrical or asymmetrical pattern is necessary for effective and scientific diagnosis and treatment. The aim was to assess the symmetrical or asymmetrical aspects of Nursing Caries in children between 3-5 years old.

Materials and Methods: In this cross-sectional study, 10 kindergartens were randomly selected by the Tehran Welfare Organization. 115 children with NC caries entered to study after examination. Written consents were obtained from the parents. The dmfs in upper primary incisors and upper and lower primary canines, as well as the first primary molars were assessed and the caries pattern in terms of symmetrical or asymmetrical aspects was evaluated. The data were analyzed by ANOVA, LSD, Chi-square and Fisher tests.

Results: In 53.9% of the children with NC, the anterior teeth were affected symmetrically, while 46.1% indicated an asymmetrical pattern. In general, 32.2% of the teeth were affected in a symmetrical pattern and 67.8% of them in an asymmetrical pattern. About the relationship between the breastfeeding from the right or left breast and the symmetrical pattern of the NC, 51% of the children were equally breastfed from both breasts. However, in the asymmetrical NC pattern with more impact in the right side of dentition, 50% of the children had been breastfed from the left side and in children with more caries  in the left side of dentition, 50% of them had been breastfed from the right side (P=0.01).

Conclusion: NC has symmetrical and asymmetrical patterns. Direction of mother for breastfeeding affects the symmetrical and asymmetrical pattern of NC.

Kermanshah Hamid , Alhosseini Seyedeh Narges Ameri , Ghabraei Sholeh , Kharazifard Mohammad Javad ,
Volume 28, Issue 1 (5-2015)

  Background and Aims: Porcelain restorations are often ground for clinical adjustment and this removes the surface glaze layer and introduces flaws that can grow in wet environments due to stress-corrosion, reduce the strength of porcelain and limit restoration lifetime. The aim of this study was to introduce some surface treatment methods to control the flaws of ceramic restorations external surface and improve their strength.

  Materials and Methods: 40 feldspathic discs were prepared and divided into 4 groups (n=10): not indented (group 1) and others indented by vickers with 29.4 N and received different treatments: no treatment (group 2), polished (group 3) and polished-silane-resin (group 4). Biaxial flexural strength of discs was tested after water storage. Data were analyzed using one-way ANOVA .

  Results: The mean flexural strength of specimens in group 1 (134.49±12.60), 2 (94.81±15.41), 3 (89.20±16.22) and 4 (80.67±12.01) were measured. Group 1 (not indented) revealed significantly higher strength (P<0.001) than that of indented groups (2, 3 and 4) . There was no significant difference between group 2 (no treatment) and 3 or 4 (treated) and between treatment methods (3 and 4) (P=0.136).

  Conclusion: The strength of porcelains is dependent on presence of cracks. With the limitations of this study, none of the treatment methods could strengthen the cracked ceramic.

Narges Ameri , Hakimeh Siadat, Ahmad Reza Shamshiri, Marzieh Alikhasi,
Volume 29, Issue 2 (11-2016)

Background and Aims: Marginal accuracy is a crucial factor influencing the clinical long-term reliability of implant-supported fixed dental prostheses (FDPs). The aim of this in vitro study was to evaluate the marginal fit of three-unit zirconia bridge frameworks fabricated using two different computer-aided design (CAD)/
computer-aided manufacturing (CAM) systems (AmannGirrbach and Zirkonzahn).

Materials and Methods: The master model of 3-unit FDP was made of two implant abutments (AmannGirrbach and Zirkonzahn) from canine to second premolar. Twelve frameworks were manufactured using each fabricating system from semi-sintered zirconia blanks, which had to be sintered for final density after milling. After manufacturing, the absolute marginal discrepancy in each abutment were determined by means of Video Measurement System (VMS). The data were analyzed, using independent and paired t test (P=0.05).

Results: For the premolar abutment, the absolute marginal discrepancy of frameworks fabricated by AmannGirrbach system was significantly greater than those of the other system (P=0.005). There was no significant difference between the marginal discrepancy of canine and premolar abutments (P>0.05).

Conclusion: Within the limitations of this study, it could be concluded that the marginal fit of zirconia FDPs was significantly dependent on the CAD/CAM system used, but the abutment size was not an effective factor.

Marzieh Alikhasi, Narges Ameri, Hakimeh Siadat, Ahmad Reza Shamshiri, Mohammadreza Nejati,
Volume 32, Issue 1 (7-2019)

Background and Aims: Passive fitness of implant frameworks are important factors for long-term success of dental implant restorations. The aim of this in vitro study was to evaluate the dimensional changes of implant supported zirconia frameworks fabricated by Zirkonzahn CAD/CAM system during fabrication stages.
Materials and Methods: The master model of 3-unit FDP was made of two implant abutments. The master model was scanned 12 times and data were saved as STL files (scanning groups). Using semi-sintered zirconia,
12 real-size frameworks (milling groups) and 12 enlarged frameworks which were then sintered (sintering group) were made in this system. Dimensions of master model and specimens of each stage were measured. The dimensional changes in respect to master model were calculated. Data were analyzed using Repeated measures ANOVA, independent t-test, and paired sample t-test at α=0.05 of significance.
Results: The milling stage showed greater dimensional changes comparing to the other stages (P<0.05). At all stages, the dimensional changes of premolar abutment height were greater than canine (P<0.001).
Conclusion: Within the limitations of this study, the results suggested that the fabrication stages and size of abutments had significant effects on the dimensional changes of zirconia frameworks.

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