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Showing 28 results for Arami

S. Arami , H. Foladi ,
Volume 16, Issue 2 (8 2003)

Statement of Problem: Rapid increases in the population of hemodialyzed patients induce the dentists to acquire a complete understanding of the special therapeutic considerations for such patients.

Purpose: The goal of this research was to study the amount of DMF in hemodialyzed patients, age ranging from 12-20 years, in the city of Tehran.
Materials and Methods: In this cross- sectional and analytic- descriptive research, 50 kidney patients (27 mail and 23 females), with the age range of 12-20 years were selected. They had referred to one of the following hospitals for hemodialysis: Imam Khomeini, Children Medical Center Fayyazbakhsh, Haft-e-Tir, Ashrafi Esfahani, Labafinejad and Hasheminejad. The data, based on clinical examination, patient's answers, patient's medical files, parents replies, were collected and analyzed by Chi- Square test.

Results: The average DMF, for. patients under study was 2.46, comparing to the normal subjects of the society, no significant difference was observed. Factors such as sex, Mother's education, oral hygiene and the number of daily brushing did not show any statistically significant difference about this index. The results also showed a 38% prevalence of severe gingivitis and 32% of moderate gingivitis.

Conclusion: This restricted study emphasizes the necessity to use proper preventive methods and to improve the patient's and parents' knowledge about oral and dental health.

S. Arami , M. Ghavam, M. Abbaszadeh ,
Volume 17, Issue 2 (7 2004)

Statement of Problem: Considering that the role of collagen fibers in dentin adhesion has not been thoroughly established yet, the removal of exposed collagen fibers with a deproteinization agent such as sodium hypochlorite following etching may facilitate access of adhesive resins to a substrate that is more penetrable and less sensitive to water content which in turn would lead to a more durable bonding system. Furthermore, due to sodium hypochlorite clinical application as a cleanser or canal irrigator, its effects on the surface before etching may influence adhesive bonding strength.

Purpose: The goal of this study was to evaluate the effects of a two-minute 5.25% NaOCL application on composite restorations microleakage, using two different adhesive systems.

Materials and Methods: In this interventional experimental study, on seventy-two extracted boving incisors class V cavities were prepared on dentinal surfaces. The specimens were then randomly divided into six equal groups: A1) Acid etch (AE) dentin bonding Scontchbond Multipurpose Plus (SBMBP), A2) AE/ dentin bonding One Step (OS), B1) NaOCL/ AE/SBMPp, B2) NaOCL/AE/OS, C1) AE/NaOCL/SBMPp, C2) AE/NaOCL/OS. After bonding procedures according to the manufacturer’s instructions, cavities were restored using Z100 composite. Then, the specimens were thermocycled for 500 times in water baths of 5 and 55C. After thermocycling, the specimens were immersed in a 0.2% solution of basic fuchsin for 24 hours. A buccolingual section at the center of each restoration was obtained and examined with a stereomicroscope to evaluate color penetration into cavities. The data were subjected to two-way variance analysis.

Results: The microleakage of group B was significantly less than those of A and C (P<0.001). No significant difference was found between groups A and C (P=0.73). There were also no significant differences within groups A, B and C (P=0.852). No interaction was observered between dentin bondings and surface treatment (P=0.946).

Conclusion: The findings of this study revealed that NaOCL application after etching, for hybrid layer removal, did not make any difference on microleakage as compared with conventional bonding systems. However, its application before etching improved the seal of restoration. Additionally, there was not any significant difference between two different dentin bondings.

S. Arami , M. Tavassoty Kheiri , R. Bashar , Ma. Nadali ,
Volume 19, Issue 1 (3 2006)

Background and Aim: Infection control is an important issue in dentistry. Without an efficient infection control, pathogens left on instruments and working surfaces will have potential danger to patients’ health. In this research, antiviral effect of three disinfectants: 0.5% sodium hypochlorite 0.05% sodium hypochlorite and Deconex 50 AF, on HBV was investigated.

Materials and Methods: In this interventional (before-after) study serums of 26 HBV positive patients were analyzed by PCR HBV analysis and 9 contaminated species were obtained to test three disinfectants. 36 agar plates were prepared with the contaminated serums. 27 of the plates were disinfected in 3 separate groups with the above mentioned solutions. Nine remaining plates were not disinfected (control). Swabs wetted by BSAS (Bovine Serum Albumin Sodium Chloride) medium were applied on the surface of the plates and the were kept in the transferred medium and sent to virology-lab of Pasteur Institute. HBV DNA were detected by commercial kit of HBV PCR (polymerase chain reaction) method. Data were analyzed by Cochrane test with p<0.05 as the limit of significance.

Results: None of samples disinfected with 0.5% sodium hypochlorite showed contamination. 11/1% of samples disinfected with 0.05% sodium hypochlorite and 44/4% of samples disinfected with Deconex 50 AF remained contaminated. Statistical analysis showed a significant difference between 0.5% sodium hypochlorite and the other groups.

Conclusion: Our findings revealed that 0.5% sodium hypochlorite solution is a strong and efficient disinfectant against HBV. Key Words: HBV Sodium hypochlorite

S. Arami , M. Tavassoti Kheiri , M. Hasani Tabayabaie , E. Yasini , A. Pahlavan , M. Ghavam , M. Mirzaie , H. Kermanshah , Sh. Forootan , S. Ahrabi , M. Tabatabaian , L. Mahrokh ,
Volume 20, Issue 4 (5 2008)

Background and Aim: The efficiency of disinfecting materials and procedures in removal of contamination from dental surfaces and equipments is essential. In authors' previous study, daily use of 2:100 dilution of 5% sodium hypochlorite in water and disposable covers were recommended since HBV contamination was found on semi-critical parts of the operative dentistry department. The aim of this study was to evaluate the HBV contamination following application of the recommended procedures.

Materials and Methods: The study was conducted in two parts. In the first cross-sectional part, samples were collected from 17 sites of dental surfaces. In the second interventional part samples were collected from 10 sites of 9 dental and 3 sites of 2 light cure units, before and after disinfection with 5% sodium hypochlorite solution diluted to 2:100. Sterile cotton swabs moistened with sterile BSAS (Bovine Serum Albumin in Sodium Chloride) solution were used for sampling. Samples were tested by PCR technique in Pasteur Institute, Iran.

Results: None of the samples collected in the first part of the study showed contamination. In the second part of the study, from 96 samples taken from various parts of dental and light cure units, before and after disinfection, there was only one HBV contaminated site before disinfection which showed no contamination after disinfection.

Conclusion: Based on the results of this study, disinfecting procedure with 5% sodium hypochlorite solution diluted to 2:100 along with using disposable covers is effective in preventing HBV contamination.

M. Memarian, Mr. Fazeli, H. Jamalifar, S. Karami,
Volume 21, Issue 1 (14 2008)

Background and Aim: According to infection possibility in high risk patients, assessment of microbial contamination in water sources utilized at medico-dental units has become a recent concern. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the microbial contamination in dental units waterlines at the department of operative dentistry, Tehran university of medical sciences in the year 2006.

Materials and Methods: In this cross-sectional study, six dental units in the department of operative dentistry were selected to assess microbial contamination in water sources. Samples were taken on Saturdays (the first working day in a week) and in the midweek, 64 and 16 hours respectively after turning the units off. Moreover, for investigating the effect of flushing, sampling was done at 30, 60, 90 and 120 seconds after flushing and were taken from three parts of each unit including air/water syringe, turbine handpiece and also cup filler water. Samples were transported in closed sterile containers to microbiology laboratory of the school pharmacy. Data were analyzed by Kruskal-Wallis and Dunn tests with p<0.05 as the level of significance.

Results: E.coli was isolated from contaminated samples. Contamination decreased by flushing. In midweek after 90 seconds flushing, water contamination disappeared. On Saturdays 2 minutes flushing decreased contamination to lower that 200 cfu/ml (the rate recommended by ADA). Samples taken from turbine handpieces showed significantly higher contamination rate compared to air/water syringe and cup filler water (p<0.001).

Conclusion: According to the results of this study, dental units waterlines showed bacterial contamination which was eliminated after 120 seconds of flushing.

A. Pahlavan, M. Ghavam, S. Arami, E. Yasini, M. Mirzaie, H. M.kermanshah, M. Hasani Tabatabaie, M. Bayrami,
Volume 21, Issue 1 (14 2008)

Background and Aim: Because of polymerization shrinkage and high viscosity of posterior composites, there are some difficulties in using them in posterior restorations. Several methods have been represented to reduce the effect of shrinkage. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of curing flowable composites under condensable ones in adaptation and microleakage reduction of posterior composite restorations.

Materials and Methods: In this experimental in vitro study, forty class II MO cavities were prepared on extracted intact molar and premolar human teeth. Gingival margins were placed 1 mm apical to CEJ. The teeth were divided into two groups. In group 1, flowable composite (Filek Flow, 3M, ESPE, USA) with 0.5-1 mm thickness was applied and cured following application of bonding agent (Single Bond, 3M, ESPE, USA). The rest of the cavity was filled by condensable composite (p60, 3M, ESPE, USA). In group 2 the flowable composite was not cured, and the condensable composite was applied in two increments. After light curing of composites, all the specimens were thermocycled and then immersed in 0.3% basic fuschin. Specimens were sectioned and evaluated for degree of dye penetration under a stereomicroscope. Data were analyzed by Mann-Whitney test with p<0.05 as the level of significance.

Results:. There was no significant difference between the two studied groups regarding microleakage.

Conclusion: Based on the results of this study, neither cured nor uncured flowable composite under condensable composite can omit microleakage in posterior composite restorations.

E. Yasini, M. Mirzaei, A. Pahlavan, M. Ghavam, M. Hasani Tabatabaie, S. Arami, H. Kermanshah, Sh. Tabatabaie,
Volume 21, Issue 2 (12 2008)

Background and Aim: Amalgam is one of the mostly used restorative materials, but has some disadvantages. Microleakage is one of the short comings of amalgam which may lead to sensitivity and recurrent caries. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of three dentin bonding systems on reduction of microleakage in amalgam restorations.

Materials and Methods: Class II amalgam restorations were made in 40 noncarious molar and premolar teeth. Then the specimens were divided into four equal groups. Scotch Bond Multi Purpose, Single bond,
iBond, were used as liner in groups one to three respectively and in group four no liner was used. The teeth were restored with high copper spherical amalgam. After thermocycling for 500 cycles at 50C and 550C, the specimens were immersed in basic fuchsin for 24 hours, bisectioned mesiodistally and evaluated under stereomicroscope at X25 for dye penetration. The data were analyzed by Kruskal-wallis and Scheffe. P<0.05 was considered as the level of significance.

Results: The groups showed significant difference (p=0.003). The group four had significantly less microleakage than the first and second groups (p<0.05). The second and third groups showed significantly different microleakage (p=0.038).

Conclusion: Based on the results of this investigation applying dentin bonding agents has no effect on reducing microleakage in amalgam restorations, however more studies are recommended.

M. Mirzaei, E. Yassini, M. Ghavam, A. Pahlavan, M. Hasani Tabatabaie, S. Arami, H. Kermanshah, B. Esmaieli,
Volume 21, Issue 2 (12 2008)

Background and Aim: Various studies have shown that reliable bond at the root - post - core interfaces are critical for the clinical success of post - retained restorations. Severe stress concentration at post - cement interface increases post debonding from the root. To form a bonded unit that reduces the risk of fracture, it is important to optimize the adhesion. Therefore, some post surface treatments have been proposed. The purpose of this study was to investigate the influence of various surface treatments of tooth - colored posts on the bonding of resin cement.

Materials and Methods: In this interventional study, 144 tooth colored posts were used in 18 groups (8 samples in each group). The posts included quartz fiber (Matchpost), glass fiber (Glassix), and zirconia ceramic (Cosmopost) and the resin cement was Panavia F 2.0. The posts received the following surface treatments: 1- No surface treatment (control group), 2- Etching with HF and silane, 3- Sandblasting with Cojet sand, 4- Sandblasting with Cojet sand and application of silane, 5- Sandblasting with alumina particles, 6- Sandblasting with alumina particles and application of silane. Then, posts were cemented into acrylic molds with Panavia F 2.0 resin cement. The specimens were placed in water for 2 days and debonded in pull - out test. Statistical analysis was performed using ANOVA followed by Tamhane and Tukey HSD. Failure modes were observed under a stereomicroscope (10 ). P<0.05 was considered as the significant level.

Results: Surface treatments (sandblasting with Cojet and alumina particles ,with or without silane) resulted in improved bond strength of resin cement to glass fiber post (Glassix) and zirconia ceramic (Cosmopost) [p<0/05], but not to the quartz fiber post (Matchpost). In general, higher bond strengths resulted in a to higher percentage of cohesive failures within the cement.

Conclusion: Based on the results of this study, sandblasting with cojet and alumina particles increases bond strength of resin cement to glass fiber post (Glassix) and zirconia ceramic (Cosmopost).Generally, the bond strength of resin cement to the posts is affected by the post's composition and surface treatment.

M. Atai, M. Ghavam, E. Yasini, M. Mirzaei, A. Pahlavan, M. Hasani Tabatabaie, S. Arami, H. Kermanshah, S. Kameli,
Volume 21, Issue 2 (12 2008)

Background and Aim: Nonmetallic tooth- colored posts adhere to canal walls by dentin bonding agents and resin cements. Better retention and proper distribution of stress result from enough and proper bonding. The purpose of this study was to evaluate bond strength of D.T. Light - post with two different resin cements (self-cure & dual-cure) and to investigate the effect of irrigating solutions applied in root canal on bond strength of the resin cements and D.T.Light- post to root canal wall.

Materials and Methods: In this experimental study 40 single root teeth (maxillary canine & central) were selected and stored in 0.1% thymol solution for one week and transferred to distilled water. The teeth were decoronated 2mm above CEJ. The canal space was mechanically enlarged using k-files (up to # 70). The teeth were randomly divided into two groups. The first group was irrigated with 2.6% NaOCl, and the second was irrigated with normal saline. After drying, the teeth were filled with gutta percha cones using lateral condensing method. After two weeks the post space was prepared and D.T.Light- post was inserted in each subgroup using self or dual-cure cements according to manufacturer's instructions. After thermocycling, the apical part was cut 1cm below CEJ. The remained length was divided into 9 equal sequential sections. Each section was submitted to shear push-out test in universal testing machine. Statistical analysis of the bond strength data was performed using ANOVA and post hoc tests with p<0.05 as the level of significance. All failed specimens were examined under stereomicroscope. Degrees of conversion of the cements were determined by FTIR.

Results: Significant difference in bond strength values were found among sites (P=0.001) and cements (P=0.03). With increasing in depth, bond strength decreased. The mean bond strength value in dual-cure resin cement was higher than self-cure cement. The irrigating solutions caused no significant difference in bond strength (P=0.46). DC% had significant difference in various depths.

Conclusion: According to the results of this investigation, bond strength of dual-cure cement is higher than self-cure one in D.T Light- post because of post's translucency. 2.6% sodium hypochlorite does not affect the bond strength.

M. Karami Nogourani, P. Khadem Abbakhshani, Z. Jadidi, G. Amirpoor,
Volume 22, Issue 1 (11 2009)

Background and Aim: Since the clinical studies conducted to explore the effect of bonding agents on the success of fissure sealant are limited in number, the present study was conducted to compare the effects of two bonding agents on the success of fissure sealant of the saliva- contaminated teeth.

Materials and Methods: In this study, 63 teeth of 35 students aged 6-8 with healthy and newly-erupted upper jaw molar teeth, were selected and divided into two groups. In one group, single-bond and In the other, SE bond were used. As the teeth were newly erupted and the distopalatal area being in contact with the gingival sulcus and this fact that, this area was impossible to isolate, the distal sulcus of the contaminated teeth and the mesial area capable of adequate isolation were assumed isolated. For each group, after etching, the teeth on one side were treated with a sealant and the teeth on the other side were first bonded and then treated with the sealant. Hence, four groups were formed: bonded/isolated, bonded/contaminated, controlled/isolated and controlled/contaminated for any bonding agent. The results of the treatment were assessed in terms of the success and failure and then analyzed using Mc Nemar, and Chi-square tests and Cochran.

Results: The results of the study indicated that:1. Saliva contamination caused a significant increase in sealant failures(p<0.05).2. Use of the two bonding agents significantly increased the success of the sealant(p<0.05).3. Use of the two bonding agents significantly increased the success of the fissure sealant on the saliva-contaminated teeth, even more than when the teeth had been isolated and with only fissure sealant(p<0.05). 4. For the contaminated enamel, the results of SE bond were better than those of the single bond (p<0.05). However, in isolated condition the results of using single bond were better (p<0.05).

Conclusion: The results of the study supported the use of these two bonding agents in the treatment of fissure sealants under both isolated and contaminated conditions. Further, more SE bond seemed to be less sensitive to saliva contamination.

H. Kermanshah, S. Hashemi Kamangar, S. Arami, A. Mirsalehian, M. Kamalinejad, M. Karimi, F. Jabalamoli,
Volume 22, Issue 2 (20 2009)

Background and Aim: The microbial cause of dental caries has been proved among its multifactorial etiologies. The prevention and control of dental caries is very critical because of high prevalence and cost especially in high risk patient such as xerostomia. Based on the world attraction to traditional treatment and importance of drug extraction of natural materials and plants, in this in vitro study effect of hydroalcoholic extract of Salvia officinalis and Pimpinella anisum which were very useful in traditional treatment of mouth and teeth disease has been determined against cariogenic bacteria.

Materials and Methods: In this experimental study, hydroalcoholic extracts have been prepared from Salvia officinalis and Pimpinella anisum with maceration method. Their antibacterial activity against Streptococcus mutans, Lactobacillus rhamnosus and Actinomyces viscosus have been evaluated with broth macrodilution method. Data were analyzed with Mann-Whitney test.

Results: Minimum Inhibitory Concentration for Salvia officinalis and Pimpinella anisum for streptococcus mutans were respectively 6.25 and 12.5 µg/ml, for Lactobacillus rhamnosus were 1.56 and 12.5 µg/ml and for Actinomyces viscosus were 12.5 and 50 µg/ml.

Conclusion:Both extracts had growth inhibitory effect on all three bacteria. Salvia officinalis had significantly greater effect on inhibition of growth of all three bacteria. Both extracts had bactericidal effect in the range of concentration.

M. Ghavam, S. Arami, M. Hasani Tabatabaie, M. Mirzaei, H. Kermanshah, A. Pahlavan, E. Yasini, M. Dehghan,
Volume 22, Issue 3 (1 2009)

Background and Aim: Decreasing the hardness of dental restorative composites after curing in oral environment can influence their clinical durability. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of food-simulating liquids such as 25%, 50%, 75 % ethanol and 50 % heptane on surface hardness of two composites - (Gradia and P60) after curing and immersing time of 24 hours and 7 days.
Materials and Methods: 45 specimens of each composite were prepared in a stainless steel mold with 6 mm diameter and 2 mm depth. 5 specimens of each composite were tested for microhardness immediately after curing as the control group. The other specimens of each composite were randomly divided into eight groups. Each specimen was immersed in one of the following solutions 25%, 50%, 75 % ethanol and 50 % heptane for either 24 hours or 7 days. Then the specimens were taken out of the solutions and washed and dried and transferred to the refrigerator until performing the test. In standard conditions, surface microhardness of specimens was evaluated by the microhardness device based on Vickers. The data were analyzed by one way ANOVA 3 way ANOVA and Tukey Post Hoc tests. The level of significance was set at p<0.05.
Results: Surface hardness of P60 composite was higher than that of Gradia. An analysis of variance in gradia and p60 showed significant difference between the control and all the other groups (P<0.05) except the 25% ethanol (P=0.514). After 24 hours all the solutions had significant effect on Gradia (P<0.05) except 50% and 75% ethanol (P=0.793). After 7 days all the solutions had significant effect on Gradia except 50% and 25% ethanol (P=0.385)and 50% and 75% ethanol (P=0.150) According to P60 after both 24 hours and 7 days all the solutions had significant effect on the hardness. 50 % heptane increased the hardness (P=0.00). 75% ethanol significantly decreased the hardness (P=0.000) followed by 50% (P=0.001) and 25% ethanol (P=0.007).
Conclusion: Based on the results of this study, the effect of time was not significant. P60 showed to be more resistant. 75% ethanol had much more effect followed by 50% and 25% ethanol. Heptane increased the mean surface hardness.

Z. Shekaramiz, M. Tabrizizadeh, M. Danesh Ardakani,
Volume 22, Issue 4 (21 2010)

Background and Aims: Insolubility has been stated as one of the important characteristics of the materials which are used as sealers in the endodontic treatments. The aim of this study was to evaluate the solubility of four endodontic sealers (ZOE, Dorifill, AH26 and Tubliseal).

Materials and Methods: Five specimens from each sealer with similar size were prepared. After first weighing, the samples were stored individually in bottles containing 50 ml of distilled water at 37ºC. After 7 days, the specimens weighed and changes in the weight of each sample recorded with a digital scale. The data were analyzed by ANOVA and Post-hoc Tukey HSD tests.

Results: The results of this study indicated that Dorifill had the maximum solubility among all sealers with weight loss of 2.8%. Tubliseal and ZOE showed the weight loss of 1.4% and 2.3%, respectively. AH26 showed weight gain of 1.9% during 7 days. There were no significant differences in the mean weight changes between Dorifill, Tubliseal and ZOE groups (P>0.05). A significant difference was found between the mean weight changes of AH26 and that of the other groups (P=0.000).

Conclusion: From the results of this study, all tested sealers were in the standard limit of solubility, and thus, it could confirm this physical property of sealers for clinical applications.

M. Ghavam, S. Arami, M. Reshad, M. Imani, M. Ataei, M. Mirzaei, E. Yasini, M. Hasani Tabatabaei, A. Pahlavan, H. Kermanshah ,
Volume 22, Issue 4 (21 2010)

Background and Aims: In spite of the advances achieved in the field of dentin adhesives, the longevity of bond to dentin is still a challenge. According to recent studies, Matrix Metaloproteinase (MMP) inhibitors can increase clinical longevity of bonding and decrease leakage. The aim of this study was to evaluate the amount and pattern of doxycycline release from an experimental dentin adhesive containing this MMP inhibitor.

Materials and Methods: In this experimental study, specimens containing 0.25 and 0.5 loading percent of doxycycline in an experimental monomer were prepared in cylindrical moulds of 12 mm diameter and 2 mm thickness. The adhesive monomer was composed of 12 wt% Bis-GMA, 10 wt% TMPTMA, 28 wt% HEMA and 50 wt% ethanol. Camphorquinone and amine were used as initiators.

Results: Addition of 0.25 and 0.5 w% doxycycline showed linear release in both groups. Increasing the loading percent of doxycycline caused more release. The release continued during the test period.

Conclusion: Doxycycline release was observed from the experimental adhesive. Further studies in this field will help in preparing adhesive systems with more clinical longevity.

M. Karami Nogourani, M. Banihashemi,
Volume 23, Issue 1 (22 2010)

Background and Aims: Studies show that sucrose containing chewing gums are cariogenic. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of two commercial chewing gums with and without sucrose on dental plaque accumulation compared with the control group.

Materials and Methods: In this clinical study, plaque accumulation during three 7-day periods (with two weeks interval) was recorded (Sillness & Loe Index) in a group of 23 volunteer male dental students who chewed in the first two periods sugar-free or sugar-containing chewing gums (Olips and Orbit, respectively) and in the last period did not chew any gum. Participants were asked to chew daily five gum sticks after meals for about twenty minutes. The data were statistically analyzed using Repeated Measure ANOVA and paired-T test.

Results: The results showed that chewing any gum even sucrose-containing gum decreased the level of dental plaque accumulation (P<0.001). However, the decreasing effect of sugar-free gums was significantly higher (P<0.001).

Conclusion: Although sugar free gum was more effective than sugar containing gum on reducing dental plaque accumulation, chewing even sugar containing gums could decrease the level of dental plaque.

M. Hasani Tabatabaie, Z Hassani, S Arami,
Volume 23, Issue 1 (22 2010)

Background and Aims: The main objective of this study was to determine the effect of polyethylene fibers and veneering composites in fiber-reinforced resin systems on the opacity (contrast ratio).

Materials and Methods: The specimens were divided into four groups. Two groups were used as the control groups, with no reinforcement. The fibers of polyethylene (Fibre-Braid) with special basement composites were used as the reinforced framework materials. Filtek Z250 and GRADIA (shade A2) were used as veneering materials. The total thickness of samples was 3 mm with 13 mm diameter. Specimens were prepared in disk shaped metal mold. The composite materials were light-cured according to their manufacturers' instructions. The contrast ratio (CR) of each specimen was determined on black and white backgrounds using reflection spectrophotometer. Reflectance was measured at intervals of 10 nm between 400 nm and 750 nm. Data were analyzed by two-way ANOVA and Tukey HSD test.

Results: When contrast ratio were compared among the different types of materials statistically significant differences were observed in both veneering composites (P<0.05). The Z250 resin composite had the lowest CR. It was shown that CR tended to decrease as the wavelength of incident light increased from 400 nm to 750 nm. On the other hand, the most differences in CR between groups were found in longer wavelengths.

Conclusion: It was found that polyethylene fibers reduced the amount of the translucency in FRC samples. The results of this study indicate that light reflectance characteristics, including the wavelength dependence, play an important role for the CR of a fiber-reinforced composite.

M. Ghavam , S. Arami , E. Tabatabai ,
Volume 23, Issue 1 (22 2010)

Background and Aims:The elution of residual monomers from cured dental composites to oral cavity has a harmful effect on human health and can affect their clinical durability. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the amount of eluted monomers (Bis-GMA, TEGDMA, UDMA) from two types of composites (Gradia and P60) after exposure to food simulating liquids such as ethanol (25, 50, 75 %) and heptane 50 % for 24 hours and 7 days. 

Materials and Methods: Forty specimens of each composite were prepared.Equal numbers of each composite were immersed in tubes containing 2cc volumes of 25, 50, 75 % ethanol and 50 % heptane. The amount of eluted monomers in standard condition such as Bis-GMA, TEGDMA and UDMA was measured by GC/MS (Gas Chromatography/Mass Spectroscopy). Data were statistically analyzed by three-way and one-way ANOVA. The level of significance was set at P<0.05.

Results: The results showed that TEGDMA was the only released monomer from all specimens. Gradia significantly released more TEGDMA compared with P60. In assessing the effect of environment, the results showed that monomers released from ethanol were more than those released from heptane and the concentration rate of 75 % ethanol resulted in most monomers release. In assessing the effect of time, the observation showed that more monomers were released during 7 days compared to 24 hours.


 Ethanol caused more release of monomers compared with heptane and 75 % ethanol released the most amounts of monomers. Gradia released more TEGDMA compared to P60. In addition, more monomers were released with increasing the time.
S. Arami ,
Volume 23, Issue 2 (23 2010)

NO Abastract ####
D. Goodarzipur, P. Karami,
Volume 23, Issue 4 (20 2011)

Background and Aims: Caries and bone loss are the most common diseases in oral cavity. The prevalence of these diseases will be reduced by controlling their risk factors. In this study, bitewing radiographs of patients were examined to illustrate the relationship between caries and bone loss.
Materials and Methods: One-hundred and fifty bitewing radiographs of 86 patients were evaluated. In these radiographs, caries and distance between alveolar crest and CEJ were measured. In addition, confounding variables (contact type, tooth type, tooth surface) were assessed. Furthermore, patients were asked about the use of other possible risk factors of bone loss like smoking, brushing, and flossing. The data were analyzed using Regression analysis.
Results: Findings of this study showed that the relationship between caries and bone loss was significant (P=0.02). Also, there were significant relationships between flossing (P=0.03), tooth type (P=0.0001) tooth surface (P=0.02) and bone loss. Finally the multivariate analyses considering confounding variables illustrate significant relationship between caries and bone loss (P=0.0001).
Conclusion: Caries and bone loss have important roles as the risk factors for each other. Thus, it is necessary to prevent these risk factors and treat them as soon as possible to reduce these diseases.

Masoomeh Hasani Tabatabaie, Ayob Pahlavan, Esmaiel Yasini, Mansore Mirzaie, Sakineh Arami, Hamid Kermanshah, Hamidreza Sadeghipour Roudsari, Seyed Hossein Bassir, Taher Akbari Saeed, Hamed Hasani,
Volume 25, Issue 3 (1 2012)

Background and Aims: There is concern that leached components from dental composites may cause adverse changes in the reproductive health. This study aimed to assess the effects of leached components from a hybrid resin composite on the reproductive system of male mice.
Materials and Methods: In the present animal study, twenty adult Syrian male mice were divided into two groups of 10 mice each. In the test group, components which leached from samples made from Filtek Z250 resin composite into 75% ethanol were daily administered to the mice for 28 days. In the control group, the procedure was repeated in the same way as the test group but without placing composite samples in the solution. Then, the body weight, weights of paired testes, Gonado Somatic Index, sperm viability, sperm motility, epididymal sperm reserve and daily sperm production were recorded. Four male mice in each group were mated with untreated female mice for 10 days. After that, the number of pregnant females and number of infants were recorded. The data were analyzed using repeated measures ANOVA, Chi-square test and t-test.
Results: There was a significant reduction in the sperm viability and sperm motility of male mice in the test group compared to the control group (P=0.001). There was no any significant differences in other parameters between two groups (P>0.05).
Conclusion: This study showed that the leached components from resin composites cannot cause infertility but they could potentially cause some adverse effects on the reproductive system of male mice.

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