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Ar. Davari , S. Yassaei, Ar. Danesh Kazemi , Mh. Yousefi ,
Volume 19, Issue 4 (6 2007)

Background and Aim: With the introduction of different bondable restorative materials in dentistry, various methods have been suggested to enhance the polymerization and shear bond strength of these materials. The aim of this study was to determine the effects of different methods of enamel conditioning on bond strength of orthodontic brackets and on the bracket/ adhesive failure mode.

Materials and Methods: In this experimental in vitro study, brackets were bonded to thirty-six bovine incisor teeth with different protocols according to the manufacturer's instructions as follows: Group 1: conventional multistep adhesive (n=12) Group 2: self-etching primer system (n=12) Group 3: acid+self-etching primer system (n=12). Specimens were loaded in a universal testing machine (Instron, Canton and Mass) and the mode of failure was recorded. Data were analyzed by ANOVA and Kruskall-Wallis tests with p<0.05 as the limit of significance.

Results: The mean shear bond strength was 11.7 ± 4.2, 10.5 ± 4.4, and 10.9 ± 4.8 MPa for group 1, 2, and 3 respectively. There was no significant difference in bond strength among the three groups (P=0.800). No significant difference was observed among the three groups with respect to residual adhesive on the enamel surfaces (P=0.554).

Conclusion: Based on the results of the present study, the use of self-etching primers may be an alternative to conventional phosphoric acid pre-treatment in orthodontic bonding.

P. Salehi , Smm. Roeinpeikar , M. Davari , Z. Emami , H. Zarif Najafi ,
Volume 23, Issue 2 (23 2010)

Background and Aims: Since there is a relationship between the tooth size and race, it seems that having statistical information about the tooth size in a society in which the orthodontic treatments are done, is very important. The aim of this study was to determine the relationship between the mesiodistal width of permanent incisors and first molars in both jaws with unerrupted permanent canine and premolars. New regression equations for prediction of the sum of mesiodistal width of canine and premolars were established.

Materials and Methods: A total of 715 dental casts (526 female, 189 male) were recruited from the department of orthodontics of Shiraz dental school and private offices of orthodontists for this cross sectional study. The greatest mesiodistal widths of all teeth were measured with digital caliper with accuracy of 0.01 mm. All data were analyzed with SPSS software and Pearson Correlation, independent T-test, paired sample T-test and multiple linear regression tests.

Results: Tanaka-Johnston equations and Moyer’s prediction tables had significant difference with mesiodistal dental width of south Iranian population, so new regression equations (based on incisors and first molars) for different jaws and sexes were presented in this study for south Iranian population. The best suggested regression is the regression that is based on all maxillary and mandibular incisors and first molars and has 12 variables. The suggested regression for prediction of maxillary canine and premolars based on the summation of mesiodistal width of all incisors and first molars in both jaws was Y=0.177X+4.227 and for prediction of mandibular canine and premolars was Y=0.188X+2.730, which a the greatest in r2 prediction of unerrupted teeth in comparison with the regressions based on incisors alone or incisors and first molars in one jaw.

Conclusion: Tanaka-Johnston and Moyer’s prediction tables are overestimated the actual size of south Iranian’s teeth width. So new regression equations based on incisors alone and incisors and first molars are suggested to increase the accuracy of space analysis in both jaws.

Abdolrahim Davari, Alireza Danesh Kazemi, Majid Mousvinasab, Ali Nadaf,
Volume 24, Issue 4 (28 2012)

Background and Aims: Composite restorative materials and dental adhesives are usually cured with light sources. The light direction may influence the bond strength of dental adhesives. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of light direction on the microtensile bond strength of fifth and sixth generation dental adhesives.

Materials and Methods: Prime & Bond NT and Clearfil SE bond were used with different light directions. Sixty human incisor teeth were divided into 4 groups (n=15). In groups A and C, Clearfil SE bond with light curing direction from buccal was used for bonding a composite resin to dentin. In groups B and D, Prime & Bond NT with light curing direction from composite was used. After thermocycling the specimens were subjected to tensile force until debonding occurred and values for microtensile bond strength were recorded. The data were analyzed using two-way ANOVA and Tukey post hoc test.

Results: The findings showed that the bond strength of Clearfil SE bond was significantly higher than that of Prime&Bond NT (P<0.001). There was no significant difference between light curing directions (P=0.132).

Conclusion: Light curing direction did not have significant effect on the bond strength. Sixth generation adhesives was more successful than fifth generation in terms of bond strength to dentin.

Abdolrahim Davari, Alireza Danesh Kazemi, Mosa Aboali,
Volume 25, Issue 1 (7 2012)

Background and Aims: When composite resin polymerizes, shrinkage stresses tend to produce gaps at the tooth/ restoration interfaces. Surface sealants may reduce or avoid problems related to the marginal interface. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of two different surface sealants (Fortify and Optiguard) on the microleakage of class V resin composite restorations.

Materials and Methods: Twenty three sound noncarious molars were collected. Totally, 45 Class V cavities with the occlusal margins in enamel and cervical margins in cementum were prepared in both buccal and lingual surfaces. The specimens were randomly assigned in three groups (15 cavities in each group) and then restored with a resin composite. After the finishing and polishing procedures, the restorations in each group were covered with a specific surface sealant, except for the control samples, which were not sealed. After placing restorations, the specimens were thermocycled and then immersed in a 50% silver nitrate solution (tracer agent) for four hours, sectioned longitudinally and analyzed for leakage using a stereomicroscope in a blind manner. The marginal microleakage was evaluated at the occlusal and cervical interfaces and compared among the three groups using the Kruskall-Wallis and the Mann-Whitney U tests.

Results: Microleakage was found in all groups at both occlusal and cervical margins. Significantly greater leakage was observed at the cervical margins compared to the enamel margins of the material groups (P=0.005). There was no statistically significant difference among the groups at occlusal margins (P=0.66). In the cervical region, Fortify showed improved results and statistically presented the lowest degree of microleakage (P=0.003).

Conclusion: The used sealant materials presented different rates of effectiveness and Fortify decreased marginal microleakage significantly.

Alireza Danesh Kazemi, Abdolrahim Davari, Seied Majid Mosavi Nasab, Ehsan Geravand,
Volume 25, Issue 4 (9 2013)

Background and Aims: Re-application of microbrush may affect the micro tensile bond strength of adhesives to dentin. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of re-application of microbrushes on the micro tensile bond strength of an adhesive to dentin.

Materials and Methods: Thirty freshly extracted molars teeth were collected and enamel of occlusal surface were removed to expose superficial dentin. Then superficial dentin was etched, washed and partially air dried. According to the times of application of microbrush, teeth were divided into two test groups. In group 1, new microbrushs were used, but in group 2, the ones that were already used for twice were included. Ambar dentin bonding agent (FGM/Brazil) was applied to the etched dentin with microbrushes according to the manufacturer's instructions. Then the crown of teeth was built up with LLiss (FGM/Brazil) composite resin. The teeth were sectioned in buccolingual direction to obtain 1mm slabs. Then 50 hourglass- shape samples were made from 30 teeth (25 Specimens per group). The microtensile bond strength of the specimens was tested using MTD500 (SD Mechatronik, Germany). The data were statistically analyzed by T-test.

Results: The mean values for the microtensile bond strength were 30.49±7.18 and 23.61±9.06 MPa±SD for the first and second groups, respectively. There was significant difference between the groups (P=0.005).

Conclusion: Microbrushes should not be used for more than one cavity preparation.

Alireza Daneshkazemi, Abdolrahim Davari, Majid Mousavinasab, Alireza Zahedifar,
Volume 26, Issue 2 (5-2013)

Background and Aims: Today, use of adhesive systems is the most common materials in restorative dental procedures. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of different air-drying periods on the microtensile bond strength of composite to dentin using adhesive.

Materials and Methods: 15 sound molar teeth were selected. The an occlusal surfaces of teeth were removed with silicon carbide disks (3M/USA) to reach flat surface of dentin. Then according to the air drying of solvent, the teeth were divided to five groups. After 5 sec etching and rinsing for 15 sec , the teeth were air dried for 3 sec . Then Singlebond (3M) was used with different air-drying times (0s, 2s, 5s, 10s, 30s) and cured. Then after insertion and curing of Saremco (microhybrid low shrinkage/Switzerland) composite, the teeth were thermocycled for 500 cycles. Then hour glass slabs with 1 mm2 interface was created. Specimens were then subjected to µTBS force until fracture. Data were analyzed using ANOVA and Bonferroni tests.

Results: Statistical tests showed that there were significant differences between bond strength of groups (P=0.002). The mean of µTBS for the 2 Sec and 30 Sec evaporating time was the most and the least vawes, respectively.

Conclusion: An optimum air-drying time for solvent evaporation was the lowest time recommended by the manufacturer. Over and under evaporation time decreased µTBS significantly.

Davari Abdolrahim , Kazemi Alireza Danesh , Mousavinasab Majid , Mohammadi Najmeh Pour ,
Volume 26, Issue 3 (8-2013)

  Background and Aims: Different adhesives with different solvents may have different solvent evaporation rates. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the solvent evaporation in the self etch and total etch adhesive in different air drying times.

  Materials and Methods: Five adhesives were used in this study: Excite, Prime & Bond NT, UNO, Single Bond, SE Bond Primer. Twelve drops of each adhesive were used for each period of air drying (5, 15, 30 sec). The percentage of mass loss was measured during each test. Data were analized using two-way ANOVA and Tukey.

  Results: Acetone base adhesives showed more loss of mass than other adhesives (P<0.01). P&B NT showed more loss of mass than other adhesives in all air drying times (P<0.01). Adhesives showed different evaporation rates in different air times (P<0.01).

  Conclusion: Adhesives with acetone/water or alcohol/water solvent shows more stable behavior in comparison with adhesives containing pure aqueous solvents.

Abdolrahim Davari , Maryam Kashfi, Ebrahim Ataei, Danesh Kazemi Alireza ,
Volume 26, Issue 3 (8-2013)

  Background and Aims: Bleaching agents not only affect the tooth structure, but also may alter the properties of restorative materials. The aim of this in vitro study was to evaluate the effect of different bleaching regimens on the microhardness of four tooth-colored restorative materials.

  Materials and Methods: Eighty specimens of four restorative materials (Microhybrid resin composite (Z250 (3M, ESPE), nanohybrid composite Z350 (3M, ESPE), packable composite P60 (3M, ESPE), and resin modified glass ionomer Vitremer (3M, ESPE)) were fabricated and were polished after 24 h with Soflex discs (3M,ESPE). Then the specimens were divided into two groups: In office bleach group, 40 specimens (10 of each restorative material) were bleached with hydrogen peroxide 37.5% for 30 min in two sessions with 7 days interval. In home bleaching group, 40 specimens were bleached with carbamid peroxide 22%, 6 h a day for 14 days. Vickers microhardness test were done before and after bleaching (baseline). Finally data were evaluated using analysis of Variance.

  Results: Two bleaching regimens were significantly decreased the microhardness values. In Z250 resin composite, the microhardness values before and after bleaching were 95.30 and 92.67 kg/mm2, respectively. for office bleaching (P=0.011) and 95.38 and 92.39 kg/mm2 for home bleaching (P<0.001). In Z350 resin composite, the microhardness values before and after bleaching were 98.29 and 92.41 kg/mm2, for office bleaching (P<0.001) and 97.35 and 93.44 kg/mm2 for home bleaching (P<0.001) respectively. In P60 resin composite, the microhardness values before and after bleaching were 103.10 and 96.16 kg/mm2, respectively. for office bleaching (P=0.045) and 102.61 and 98.16 kg/mm2 for home bleaching (P=0.001). In resin modified glass ionomer (Vitremer), the microhardness values before and after bleaching were 56.79 and 49.41 kg/mm2, respectively. for office bleaching (P=0.004) and 54.17 and 46.50 kg/mm2 for home bleaching (P<0.001). There was no significant difference between two bleaching agents (P=0.365).

  Conclusion: Dental bleaching agents decrease the microhardness of tooth-colored restorative materials.

Davari Abdolrahim , Daneshkazemi Alireza , Modaber Maryam , Malekzadeh Mohammad ,
Volume 27, Issue 4 (1-2015)

  Background and Aims: The most effective preventing tooth decay method is fluoride compounds applications. Some studies suggested that APF gels caused changes on the superficial physical properties of composite. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to evaluate the marginal microleakage of class V composite restorations before and after AFP gel application.

  Materials and Methods: The class V cavities in buccal surfaces of 45 molar teeth were made in such a way that occlusal margin was placed in enamel and cervical margin in cement. In group 1, at first fluoride-therapy and then cavity preparation and restoration by composite resin was done. In group 2, at first the class V cavities were prepared and restored, then fluoride-therapy was carried out. In group 3, cavities were prepared and restored with no fluoride-therapy. The dye penetration rate in occlusal and cervical margins was examined by stereomicroscope. Data were statistically analyzed using Kruskal-Wallis and Mann-Whitney test.

  Results: There was no statistically significant difference between groups ( P=0.975).

  Conclusion: Fluoride-therapy using AFP gel before and after class V composite restorations, had no significant effect on the microleakage of dentin and enamel margins.

Abdolrahim Davari, Soghra Yassaei, Alireza Daneshkazemi, Mohadeseh Khosravanian,
Volume 28, Issue 2 (7-2015)

  Background and Aims: Orthodontic bracket failure during treatment is a common problem. With the introduction of low shrinkage composites the question is that whether: this sufficient has coefficient bond strength for bonding bracket during orthodontic treatment. The aim of this study was to compare the shear bond strength (SBS) of silorane-based and metacrylate-based composites to metal brackets.

  Materials and Methods: 30 human premolar teeth were collected and divided into 2 groups. In group 1, 15 orthodontic brackets were bonded using silorane-based composite, in group 2, 15 orthodontic brackets were bonded using metacrylate-based composite. The shear bond strength of each specimen was determined in an Instron machine. Amount of residual adhesive remaining on each tooth was evaluated using a stereomicroscope. Data were analyzed using T-test to compare the shear bond strength between groups and LSD method to compare the Adhesive Remnant Index (ARI) scores.

  Results: There was significant difference in the SBS between the test groups (P<0.001). The mean bond strength of bonding brackets to silorane-based composite was (42.42 ± 7.03) MPa, and the mean bond strength of bonding brackets metacrylate-based composite was (21.08±2.97 ) MPa. No significant difference in the ART was found between groups (P=0.66).

  Conclusion: Silorane-based composite provided higher bond strength to orthodontic metal brackets.

Alireza Daneshkazemi, Abdolrahim Davari, Farnaz Farahat, Neda Pazhoohi,
Volume 28, Issue 2 (7-2015)

  Background and Aims: The purpose of this study was to compare the effect of chlorhexidine 2%, ethanol 70% and sodium ascorbate 10% and delayed bonding for 1 week on the shear bond strength of composite resin to enamel after bleaching.

  Materials and Methods: 90 human central incisors were divided into 6 equal groups: Group 1: no bleaching Group 2: bleaching with carbamide peroxide 45% for 45 minutes Group 3: bleaching + restoring specimens in distilled water for 1 week. In group 4, 5 and 6, after bleaching, 1 cc of chlorhexidine 2%, ethanol 70% and sodium ascorbate 10% were applied for 15 minutes. Composite cylinders were bonded on the buccal surfaces. Specimens were thermocycled for 1000 cycles and the shear bond strength test was done. Specimens were examined under stereomicroscope and SEM. Data were analyzed a sign ANOVA and Bonferroni test.

  Results: The shear bond strength values were not significantly lower in the bleached teeth (group 3, 4, 5 and 6) than that of negative control group (group 1) (P=1.000, P=0.069, P=0.081, P=1.000) Bonferroni test results show significant difference between test groups (3, 4, 5 and 6) and group 2 (P<1.000, P=0.007, P=0.008, P<1.000) Under SEM, resin tags in group 2 was thinner and lesser than group 3, 4, 5 and 6. The most adhesive failures were in group 2.

  Conclusion: Bleaching with carbamide peroxide and immediate bonding of composite decreased the shear bond strength. Sodium ascorbate 10% and delayed bonding for 1 week were the most effective way.

Farnaz Farahat, Abdolrahim Davari, Motahare Amiri, Ebrahim Mokarizadeh,
Volume 28, Issue 4 (1-2016)

Background and Aims: Dental erosion refers to the loss of tooth structure by being scratched chemically without bacterial involvement which needs to care about due to its prevalence and treatment problems. This study was designed with the aim of evaluation of the frequency of dental erosion and its causing factors in patients referring to yazd dental school in 2012-2013.

Materials and Methods: In this cross-sectional study, 400 patients referring to yazd dental school were randomly selected. All of their teeth were evaluated in three surfaces (buccal, lingual and occlusal). The BEWE score was used for classification the extent of damages. Also, patients were given a questionnaire that included patient demographic information and questions to investigate the causes of dental erosion. Data were analyzed using SPSS version 17 and Mann-Whiney, Fisher exact, and Chi-square tests.

Results: In this study, 138 men and 261 women were participated with the mean age of 33.26±10.83. 84 persons (21.1%) had erosion. There was a direct and significant relationship between the dental erosion and patient's age (P >0.001). Also, there was a direct relationship between the dental erosion and reflux and consumption of lemon and pickle, beverages, soft beer and juice (P>0.001).

Conclusion: Consumption of lemon and pickle, beverages, soft beer and juice increases the risk of erosion. Considering the prevalence of dental erosion in about 21% of patients, it is necessary to pay more attention to the knowledge of the causes of erosion and reduction strategies of it.

Ehsan Tavakoli Hosseini, Abdolrahim Davari, Mahsa Asemi Esfahani,
Volume 30, Issue 3 (10-2017)

Background and Aims: Radiopacity is an essential requirement for all restorative materials. Radiopaque materials allow the dentist to diagnose and assess radiographically the restoration, primary caries, assessment of contours, overhang and secondary caries. The aim of this study was to evaluate the radiopacity of two types of dental bases and liners in comparison whit dental structure using a digital radiography system.
Materials and Methods: Two classes of materials were prepared: 1 mm and 2 mm thickness disks for glass inomer and 1 mm and 0.5 mm thicknesses for dycal. Specimens of enamel and dentine with the same thicknesses were obtained. As a control, an aluminum step wedge was used. Samples were positioned over a phosphor-ray, plate of min ray soredex system, exposed, and the images were analyzed using the contour dent software. ANOVA analysis was used to investigate the significance of differences among the groups. For pairwise comparisons, the Bonferroni test was applied (P<0.005).
Results: 0.5 mm diameter of self-cure and light cure dycal and enamel, presented radio-opacity higher than that of dentine, except for the light cure dycal that had radiopacity lowers than enamel. 1 mm diameter of all the groups presented higher radiopacity than dentin. Light cure and self-cure glass inomer and self-cure dycal presented radiopacity higher than enamel. Enamel showed radipacity higher than light cure dycal in 2 mm diameter self-cure. Light cure glass inomer presented radiopacity higher than that of enamel and dentin.
Conclusion: The increased thickness of the materials evaluated increased their radio-opacity. It was concluded that all the materials had lower radiopaaty than dentin. Only enamel showed higher radiopacity than light-cured dycal.

Abdolrahim Davari, Alireza Danesh Kazemi, Mehrrnaz Fallah Tafti,
Volume 30, Issue 4 (1-2018)

Background and Aims: A suitable restorative material must have acceptable mechanical properties. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of conventional acidic drinks on the micro-hardness of two dental resins.
Materials and Methods: 48 samples of each of P60 and G-aenial composites were prepared and randomly divided into six groups: Coca-Cola, Fanta, yoghurt drinks, soft beer, Sprites and control groups. The study was in 3 steps: after one day in distilled water and after one day and one week of immersion in beverages per day
(6 hours). The Vickers micro-hardness was then evaluated. Finally, data were analyzed by, t-tests, ANOVA and Tukey tests.
Resultes: Comparing the results between the two groups, a significant difference between the two composite was found. After one day in the water, the average micro-hardness for P60 was of 27.12 (kgf/mm2) and 16.51 (kgf/mm2) for G-aenial amount and these differences were found statistically significant (P=0.0001). For the
6-hour maintenance interval, the average micro-hardness between P60 and G-aenial was statistically significant (P=0.0001). For 42 hours, the average micro-hardness ranged between P60 and G-aenial that were statistically significant (P=0.0004). The stiffness of the P60 composite after 42 hours’ storage in soft beer significantly decreased compared with the control group (P=0.03). G-aenial composite hardness after 42 hours of soaking in the Coca-Cola was reduced significantly compared to yogurt drinks (P=0.02).
Conclusion: As a result, the hardness of P60 composite was higher than that of G-aenial. The hardness of both composites reduced in acidic drinks after one week.

Abdolrahim Davari, Alireza Daneshkazemi, Farnaz Frahat, Fatemeh Kohestani,
Volume 32, Issue 1 (7-2019)

Background and Aims: Despite patient’s demand increased for tooth color restorations, the stable bond between dentin and composite is a challenge in dentistry. Dentin protease activation is responsible for dentin-resin bond failure. The aim of this study was to determine the best pretreatment agent to inhibit matrix metalloproteinase and increase resin-dentin bond durability.
Materials and Methods: After collecting 24 intact third molars, the dentin surfaces were exposed immediately under DEJ. After acid etching of dentin rewetting was done with CHX 2%, EDC 0.3 M for 60 and water (control group). Then the adhesive (Single bond, 3M ESPE, USA) and composite (Filtek Z250 XT, 3M ESPE, USA) were applied. 48 sectioned dentinal specimens were prepared. The specimens were divided into 3 groups. Each group was divided into 2 sub groups (n=8). In half of each group, the micro tensile bond strength test was done immediately and another part half 6 months. Then, the specimens were evaluated by stereomicroscope and SEM. Statistical analysis was performed using SPSS23 software, two-way ANOVA and multiple Tukey and T-test comparisons. P<0.05 was considered as a significant level.
Results: There were not significant differences between immediate micro tensile bond strength of CHX, EDC and control groups (P=0.97). However, there was significant differences between CHX, EDC compared with the control group (P≤0.0001). Comparison between the immediate and 6-month bond strengths in each group, only in EDC group, there was no significant after 6 months’ difference (P=0.64).
Conclusion: EDC and CHX t did not have any effect on the immediate microtensile bond strength. After 6 months, EDC prevented bond strength deterioration, but the bond strength was decreased after CHX usage.

Abdolrahim Davari, Alireza Daneshkazemi, Mahsan Sheshmani, Haleh Karami, Elham Motallebi,
Volume 32, Issue 3 (11-2019)

Background and Aims: The bleaching agents can lead to color and translucency changes in composite resins. Due to the increasing use of the nano composites and the silorane-based composites, this study aimed at examining the color and translucency changes of these restorations after bleaching agents.
Materials and Methods: In this experimental - laboratory study, 198 composite discs were divided into three groups of 66 specimens using three types of composite: the microhybrid composite Z250, the nanohybrid composite Z350 and the silorane-based composite P90. After acid etching, half of the specimens in each group were covered by a resin rebounding agent. Then, the color and translucency assessment was done by reflectance spectrophotometer, using CIE LAB system. Each group was divided into three subgroups of bleaching agents: the 40% hydrogen peroxide and 20% carbamide peroxide bleaching agents and the control group. After applying bleaching agents, the final color and translucency changes were assessed. Data were analyzed using Mann Whitney and Kruskal Wallis tests.
Results: The effect of composite and bleaching agent type and bonding agent were significant (P<0.001). The color changes in the microhybrid composite were higher than nanohybrid and silorane-based composites (P<0.001) (∆E>3.3). Also, the color changes by 20% carbamide peroxide were higher than that of hydrogen peroxide and control groups (P<0.001). The results of translucency changes were generally consistent with color-change measurements (∆E>3.3).
Conclusion: According to the present study, the most color changes appeared in the microhybrid composite and by 20% carbamide peroxide bleaching agent. Rebound samples were generally less affected by bleaching agents. The least color and translucency changes were related to nanohybrid composites.

Alireza Daneshkazemi, Abdolrahim Davari, Motahareh Amiri, Fatemeh Mirhosseini,
Volume 33, Issue 1 (7-2020)

Background and Aims: Erosion is the chemical dissolution of a tooth by acid without bacterial involvement. The purpose of the current study was to investigate the effect of resin infiltration (Icon), MI paste plus, and Nd:YAG laser on the enamel microhardness.
Materials and Methods: 40 enamel samples were obtained from the third molar tooth. Primary microhardness was measured in all specimens. Then, erosion was created using hydrochloride acid on the surfaces of enamel and the microhardness values were measured. The samples were randomly divided into four groups. G1: MI paste plus, G2: MI paste plus+ Nd:YA laser, G3: ICON without etching, G4: ICON with etching. Erosion was induced again by hydrochloric acid and then subjected to thermocycling. Finally, the microhardness of the samples was measured. Statistical analysis was performed using SPSS23 software, one-way ANOVA, multiple Tukey and T-test comparisons. P<0.05 was considered as a significant level.
Results: The microhardness increased in the third stage compared to the second stage in all groups, which was statistically significant (P<0.000). Also, the comparison of the increase of microhardness among groups, except second group with the fourth group, was statistically significant.
Conclusion: All the materials used in this study significantly increased the microhardness of the eroded enamel.

Azadeh Zakerzadeh, Abdolrahim Davari, Haleh Karami,
Volume 33, Issue 2 (8-2020)

Background and Aims: The self-adhering composites were introduced to reduce the chair time and minimizing handling errors. They can be bonded micromechanically to the dental structure without the need for separate adhesive application. Since there is limited information about bonding performance of this type of composite, the aim of this study was to evaluate the microleakage of enamel and dentin margins compared to the conventional adhesive systems.
Materials and Methods: 30 intact premolars were selected and on their buccal and lingual surfaces, standardized class V cavities with the occlusal margin in enamel and gingival margin in dentin were prepared. Then according to the materials used, the specimens were randomly divided into three groups including: 1) Vertise flow, 2) SE bond + ValuxTM Plus, and 3) Single bond + ValuxTM Plus. After final polishing of the restorations, the specimens were subjected to 1000 thermal cycles of 5±2 and 55±2°C and after that dye penetration was examined by stereomicroscope. The collected data were statistically analyzed using Kruskal-Wallis test and Mann-Whitney test
Results: The lowest rate of the occlosal microleakage was related to group 2 (P<0.05) and there was no significant difference between groups 1and 3 (P=0.58). Also, no significant difference was found in the gingival microleakage among the three groups (P=0.23). On the other hand, in each group, the gingival microleakage was significantly higher than occlosal margins (P<0.05).
Conclusion: According to the results, sealing ability of self-adhering composite is comparable with that of the conventional adhesives.

Alireza Daneshkazemi, Abdolrahim Davari, Zahra Usefi, Niloofar Fallah, Solmaz Ghanbarnejad, Pedram Daneshkazemi,
Volume 33, Issue 3 (10-2020)

Background and Aims: Adding nanoparticles to dental composite resins, could reduce bacterial adhesion and secondary caries. Thermocycling can resemble in-vitro conditions to the oral environment. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of thermocycling on the microleakage of a mixture of copper oxide nanoparticles and flowable composite.
Materials and Methods: In this in-vitro study, 88 premolar teeth were divided into eight groups based on the application of copper oxide nanoparticles with concentrations of 0.1% and 0.3% w/w and thermocycling by 0, 1000, 5000 and 15,000 cycles. The occlusal grooves of the teeth were sealed with the mixture of flowable composite and copper oxide nanoparticles, and the teeth were thermocycled. Next, the teeth were immersed in methylene blue 2% solution for 24 hrs and were cut and the microleakage was evaluated by a stereomicroscope (hp/USA). Data were analyzed using Kruskal-Wallis and Mann-Whitney tests at the significance level of 0.05.
Results: In the groups with 0.1 % copper oxide nanoparticles, the mean microleakage increased significantly with increasing the number of thermocycling rounds (P=0.032). The difference in the microleakage between the groups exposed to 0 and 15,000 termocycling was significant (P=0.019). However, thermocycling had no significant effect on the microleakage of groups with concentration of 0.3% (P=0.780). The specimens subjected to the 0, 1000, 5000 and 15000 thermocycling in two concentrations of copper oxide nanoparticles showed no significant difference in the microleakage.
Conclusion: In groups containing copper oxide nanoparticles with a concentration of 0.1%, the microleakage increased by increasing the number of thermocycling up to 15,000 cycles compared to the control group. However, this did not have significant effect for the concentration of 0.3% copper oxide nanoparticles.

Abdolrahim Davari, Hengameh Zandi, Farnaz Faraahat, Zahra Haddadi,
Volume 34, Issue 0 (5-2021)

Background and Aims: Nowadays, new techniques are used to control dental caries that have the ability to kill cariogenic bacteria. Recently, the addition of antibiotics to glass ionomers has been proposed to reduce the overall number of saliva bacteria. The aim of this study was to compare the antimicrobial effect and compressive strength of resin- modified glass ionomer (RMGI) containing different antibiotics on Streptococcus mutans.
Materials and Methods: A total of 120 specimens were prepared in 3 groups (n=40) including RMGI containing doxycycline with a concentration of 1.5%, RMGI containing a combination of ciprofloxacin, metronidazole and minocycline with a concentration of 1.5%, and RMGI without antibiotics as control group. To measure the antibacterial effect, the disk diffusion method and counting of Streptococcus mutans bacterial colonies were used and then the compressive strength test was performed. Data were collected into SPSS25 and analyzed by ANOVA and Kruskal-Wallis tests and the significance level was considered α=0.05.
Results: The mean number of bacterial colonies in the RMGI group containing doxycycline in all three time intervals 1, 24 hours and 7 days was significantly lower than the specimens in the RMGI group containing the triple antibiotic (P<0.001). The mean compressive strength of the two experimental groups was lower than the control group but was not statistically significant (P=0.326).
Conclusion: The addition of antibiotics at a concentration of 1.5% to RMGI resulted in a favorable antibacterial property with no significantly change in the compressive strength.

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