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T. Hooshmand , A. Keshvad , K. Moharamzadeh ,
Volume 17, Issue 2 (7 2004)

Statement of Problem: In a previous study it was reported that a durable resin-ceramic tensile bond could be obtained by an appropriate silane application without the need for HF acid etching the ceramic surface. Evaluation of the appropriate application of silane by other test methods seems to be necessary.

Purpose: The purpose of this study was to compare the interfacial fracture toughness of smooth and roughened ceramic surfaces bonded with a luting resin.

Materials and Methods: Ceramic discs of 10 mm in diameter and 2 mm in thickness were prepared. Four different surface preparations (n=10) were carried out consisting of (1) ceramic surface polished to a 1µm finish, (2) gritblasted with 50µm alumina, (3) etched with 10% HF for 2 min, and (4) gritblasted and etched. The ceramic discs were then embedded in PMMA resin. For the adhesive area, the discs were masked with Teflon tapes. A circular hole with diameter of 3 mm and chevron-shaped with a 90° angle was punched into a piece of Teflon tape. The exposed ceramic surfaces were treated by an optimised silane treatment followed by an unfilled resin and then a luting resin cylinder of 4mm in diameter and 11 mm in length was built. Specimens were stored in two different storage

conditions: (A): Distilled water at 37°C for 24 hours and (B): Distilled water at 37°C for 30 days. The interfacial fracture toughness (GIC) was measured at a cross-head speed of 1 mm/min. The mode of failure was examined under a stereo-zoom microscope and fracture surfaces were examined under Scanning Electron Microscope.

Results: The mean interfacial fracture toughness values were Group A: 1) 317.1±114.8, 2) 304.5±109.2, 3) 364.5±169.8, and 4) 379.4±127.8 J/m2±SD. Group B: 1) 255.6±134.4, 2) 648.0±185.1, 3) 629.3±182.6 and 4) 639.9 ±489.0 J/m2±SD. One way Analysis of Variance showed that there was no statistically significant difference in the mean interfacial fracture toughness for groups A1-A4 (P>0.05). However, the mean interfacial fracture toughness for group B1 was significantly different from that for groups B2, B3 and B4 (P<0.05). Independent-ٍٍٍSamples T-Test results showed that there was a significant increase in the GIC mean value for groups B2 and B3 after 30 days water storage (P<0.05). The modes of failure were predominantly interfacial or cohesive within the resin. Conclusions: The fracture toughness test method used in this study would be appropriate for analysis of the adhesive zone of resin-ceramic systems. From the results, it can be concluded that micro-mechanical retention by gritblasting the ceramic surfaces could be sufficient with no need for HF acid etching the ceramic surfaces when an appropriate silane application procedure is used.

T. Hooshmand , A. Keshvad ,
Volume 18, Issue 2 (4 2005)

Statement of Problem: Evaluation of fracture properties is a basic principle for true assessment of brittle materials’ properties. Resin–based composite materials are being used extensively in today’s dentistry. Fracture toughness is considered an important parameter for providing useful information about material’s nature, properties and its resistance to fracture.

Purpose: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the fracture toughness of a resin composite produced in the country and to compare it with that of other standard materials.

Materials and Methods: Four types of resin composite materials were used as follow to prepare 60 specimens (n=15 for each group), A) Tetric Ceram (Ivoclar–Vivadent) B) Brilliant (Coltene-Whaledent) C) SpectrumTPH (Dentsply) and D) Ideal Macoo (Ideal Macoo, Iran). Specimens of 5 mm diameter ( 0.1 mm) and 2 mm depth (±0.1 mm) were prepared in a central notch (90 notch angle) PTFE mold. Then specimens were light cured with two applications of overlapping exposures for a total of 120 s and were stored in distilled water at 37ºC for 48 hours, A cylindrical roller of 3 mm diameter was seated inside the V sections and fracture was accomplished in a universal testing machine at a crosshead speed of 0.5 mm/min. Data were analyzed by one–way ANOVA and post-hoc paired Tukey HSD test with P<0.05 as the limit of significance.

Results: The mean KIC and torque to fracture (T) values for each material tested were A) 3.080.42, 16.992.34, B) 2.880.63, 16.041.98 C) 3.400.53, 18.752.93 and D) 2.870.46, 15.782.57 MN/m3/2SD and N/mmSD, respectively. Group C showed significantly the highest mean KIC and T values among groups tested which was significantly higher than that of group B and D (P<0.05). The mean KIC and T values for groups A, B, and D were not significantly different (P>0.05).

Conclusion: From evaluating the fracture properties of materials tested in this study it was concluded that the mean fracture toughness value for SpectrumTPH (Dentsply) was significantly higher than that of Ideal Macoo resin composite material (Ideal Macoo, Iran). The F.T value for Ideal Macoo was considered acceptable as it was not significantly different from that of other resin composite materials tested.

Mohammad Ali Keshvad, Tabassom Hooshmand,
Volume 29, Issue 2 (11-2016)

Resin-based composite restorative materials  have a substantial share in dental treatments. Their esthetic has made them patients’ first choice as restorative materials. Marginal leakage is one of their problems which leads to recurrent caries and post-operative hypersensitivity. Our aim was to evaluate the theoretical and clinical methods that have been proposed in the dental literature. Around 50 articles from Pubmed, SCOPUS and google scholar were selected and categorized in 4 groups based on the selected keywords. All the studies discussed in this paper have emphasized that there is no way to eliminate the microleakage but it can be reduced by means of some approaches. On the other hand, due to the multifactorial nature and difference of oral environment and laboratory conditions, there isn’t any certain way to define precisely. It seems that there is an absolute need for more research in this field to make the relation of theoretical results and clinical findings possible.

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