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A. Jafari, Mr. Khami, R. Yazdani, M Mohammadi,
Volume 22, Issue 4 (21 2010)

Background and Aims: The objective of the present study was to investigate knowledge and attitude of senior dental students towards HIV/AIDS. Its result could help in promotion of education.

Materials and Methods: This educational research was carried out in two state dental schools in Tehran. The senior dental students in Tehran and Shaheed Beheshti dental schools were asked to fill in a self-administered questionnaire regarding their age, gender, parents' job, knowledge and attitudes towards treatment of patients with HIV/AIDS in Autumn semester 2007. Fifty five dental students (83%) including 27% male and 73% female in Shaheed Beheshti and fifty five dental students (85%) including 34% male and 66% female in Tehran dental schools were participated. The score for knowledge and attitude of the students were calculated separately. The data were analyzed using Independent sample t-test.

Results: The mean percentage of knowledge and attitude scores were 76.5% (at rang 1-3) and 50% (at range 1-5), respectively. Nearly all of the students believed that all patients should be considered as HIV positive in dental practice, while 49% preferred to refer HIV positive patients. Knowledge and attitude of students were not significantly associated with the gender and knowing HIV positive person (P>0.05).

Conclusion: There is a need to improve knowledge and attitudes of dental students towards HIV/AIDS. It is suggested to emphasize on this subject in dental schools curriculum in Iran.

Hadi Ghasemi, Mohammad Reza Khami,
Volume 25, Issue 1 (7 2012)

Background and Aims: The present study aimed to evaluate the barriers to the production of scientific dental articles in dental schools in Iran based on the opinions of dental postgraduate students.

Materials and Methods: A self-administered questionnaire was distributed among postgraduate students of all Iranian dental schools in June 2010. The respondents rated their agreement with eight sentences about what hinder them from producing scientific dental articles based on a 5-grade Likert scale. The data were analyzed using Chi-square test.

Results: Totally, 270 filled questionnaires from 14 dental schools were received. Of all respondents, 53% were male, the mean age were 29.6 ± 3.8. About half of the respondents reported at least one published article. Less than half of the respondents reported producing an article from undergraduate thesis more women than men and more younger than older students (P<0.03). About two-third of the respondents rated absence of an English editing center, no financial incentives, no appropriate environment, and no competency for scientific writing as most prevalent barriers to the production of scientific dental articles.

Conclusion: To expand the share of Iran in the production of scientific dental documents, the potential of postgraduate dental students must be regarded and suitable condition for scientific writing must be provided. Specifically, based on the findings of the present study, provision of an English editing facility, establishing financial incentives, and providing the students with appropriate environment and efficient scientific writing education are of utmost importance.

Mohamad Reza Khami, Ensieh Akhgari, Anahita Moscowchi, Reza Yazdani, Simin Zahra Mohebbi, Afsaneh Pakdaman, Samane Razeghi,
Volume 25, Issue 1 (7 2012)

Background and Aims: The aim of the present study was to investigate self-perceived need to learn practice management and self reported knowledge in this regard among dentists.

Materials and Methods: A group of five academic staff members of Community Oral Health Department (Tehran Dental School) and four dentists formed an expert panel to develop the content of the course. This group developed a list of topics related to principles of successful dental practice. To investigate the necessity of educating the topics and self-assessed knowledge of the topics, a questionnaire was designed and administered to 55 volunteer dentists. Forty six dentists completed the questionnaire. T-test and Chi-square test were used for statistical analyses.

Results: Totally more than two-third of the dentists believed that a huge need exists for education of all the topics. The corresponded figure for such topics as ergonomics and medical emergencies was about 90%. About 80% of the dentists felt that they had a vast knowledge of safety and infection control. On the other hand, 54.3% of them reported weak knowledge regarding professional rules and regulations. Self-reported educational need and knowledge of the dentists did not show significant association with their age, gender, and work experience

Conclusion: The dentists believed in the necessity of educating such topics and evaluated their knowledge as deficient in these areas. This shows the necessity of developing courses on these topics.

Reza Yazdani, Hamide Kalkou, Mohammadreza Khami ,
Volume 26, Issue 3 (8-2013)

  Background and Aims: Iatrogenic damage to adjacent tooth during proximal cavity preparation is one of the most common side effects in operative dentistry. The aim of this study was to determine prevalence of iatrogenic damages to adjacent tooth during the preparation of proximal Class II cavities among undergraduate students at dental faculty of Tehran University of Medical Sciences in 2010 .

  Materials and Methods: 106 posterior permanent teeth which had Class II decay with sound proximal surfaces of adjacent teeth were selected and restored by dental students awarding the aims of the present study. After finishing restoration, proximal surfaces were completely dried by air and evaluated with dental chair light. In doubtful cases, surfaces were evaluated with × 3 magnification. Damages were classified into 2 groups abrasion and groove. Data were analyzed using Fishers exact and Pearson chi square tests .

  Results: The frequency of adjacent surfaces damage were 57.5%, with 31.1% damages as abrasion and 26.4% as groove. Students who used matrix band and wedge in proximal area as preventive instruments showed 53.4% damages and other students showed 57.3% damages (P>0.05). A significantly higher number of females and students at restorative course level (3) used wedge and matrix band than males and students at restorative course level (4) for protecting adjacent teeth (P<0.05).

  Conclusion: According to the high percentage of iatrogenic damages on adjacent sound teeth in class II cavity preparation, teaching of preventive methods and using proper techniques is necessary for dental students as future dentists.

Mohamadreza Khami, Arezo Ebne Ahmadi, Mina Ahmadian, Samaneh Razeghi, Reza Yazdani,
Volume 27, Issue 3 (9-2014)


  Background and Aims: Tobacco kills 5 million people worldwide annually, according to the Health Ministry reaches this number is about 70,000 people a year in Iran. Dental professionals are in a unique position to promote smoking cessation due to the opportunity for regular interaction with their patients. The aim of this study was to investigate knowledge, attitudes, and skills of dental students at Tehran and Shahid Beheshti dental schools towards tobacco cessation counseling in dental office.

  Materials and Methods: In this cross-sectional study, the target group was dental students at Tehran and Shahid Beheshti dental schools, and the sampling method was census. A questionnaire on the knowledge, attitudes, and skills towards tobacco cessation counseling in dental practice was administered to the students (n=93). Data were analyzed using T-test.

  Results: The response rate was 100% (93 students participate in this program and all of them filled the questionnaire). The average score of knowledge at Tehran and Shahid Beheshti dental schools was 17.5 and 18.4, respectively (P=0.09), the average score of attitudes was 33.5 and 33.1, respectively (P=0.80). There were no significant differences between the two dental schools in these parts. The average score of skill was 11.9 and 16.6, respectively. The differences between the students of two dental schools in skill were significant (P=0.002).

  Conclusion: Although the attitude of dental students at Tehran and Shahid Beheshti schools towards tobacco cessation counseling seemed to be fair, some deficiencies existed in their knowledge and skill. Dental education programs should be implemented properly in this field.

Sara Ghadimi, Mohammad Reza Khami, Samaneh Razeghi,
Volume 28, Issue 1 (5-2015)

Background and Aims: Despite significant decline in dental caries in recent decades, the disease remains a public health problem especially in developing countries. In recent years combined application of laser and fluoride has been introduced as a new caries-preventive measure. The purpose of the present study was to review the literature on the preventive effect of combined application of laser and fluoride on the dental caries. Materials and Methods: PubMed, Google Scholar and EMBASE databases were searched for articles published from 1990 to November 30, 2013. Various combinations of the following keywords were used: Dental caries, Laser, Fluoride, Fluoride therapy, Prevention and Enamel. The inclusion criteria included all levels of available evidence. Articles published only in english language were evaluated, and unpublished data were not sought. Results: Several studies evaluating the effect of laser alone or combined with topical fluoride to prevent dental enamel demineralization were found. Studies assessing the combined effect were more frequently done on permanent teeth and just a few studies were done on primary teeth. In total, most of the studies confirmed that combined application of laser and topical fluoride has a remarkable effect in prevention of enamel demineralization compared to application of each of them alone. Conclusion: Laser irradiation combined with topical fluoride application seems to provide the best prevention effect on the dental caries initiation and progression in enamel of permanent teeth. However, more experimental and clinical studies are necessary to be done on the primary teeth in this area.
Mohammad Reza Khami, Hooman Keshavarz, Samaneh Razeghi,
Volume 30, Issue 1 (6-2017)

Background and Aims: Opinion of students regarding the content, structure and quality of their training is a fundamental part of holistic evaluation of curriculum, and serves as an important information resource in policy making. In the present study, we aimed to contribute to the development, assessment and evaluation of the new national dental curriculum through evaluation of last-year dental students’ opinions regarding undergraduate dental curriculum.

Materials and Methods: This cross sectional questionnaire survey was done in 2010-2011 academic year. The target population was last-year dental students in 15 Iranian state dental schools. In these schools, all last-year dental students were invited to participate in the study. The chi-square test served for statistical analyses.

Results: In total, 432 students (68.4% female) participated in the study. Of the respondents, 72.4% (60.7% of male and 77.6% of female, P=0.001) believed that their undergraduate dental training had been completely inadequate or inadequate. Only about one third of students believed that educational methods during their undergraduate dental training had been appropriate or completely appropriate.

Conclusion: In general, it seems that undergraduate dental training from students’ view point has not been appropriate in terms of both content and method. The results show the necessity of revision of national undergraduate dental curriculum.

Mohammadreza Khami, Shima Ghorbani, Mahdi Hasanpour,
Volume 32, Issue 2 (10-2019)

Background and Aims: Due to high mortality rate and cost of smoking, WHO has emphasized on the role of dentists in smoking cessation among patients. The aim of the present study was to investigate the dental students, knowledge toward health consequences of smoking, their attitude towards smoking cessation activities, and their education programs in this field.
Materials and Methods: In this cross-sectional study, the target group was senior dental students at Tehran and Shahid Beheshti Universities of Medical Sciences, and Azad and Shahed Universities. A questionnaire was used to collect data in addition to background information, on the knowledge, attitudes, and education towards tobacco cessation counseling in dental practice was administered to the students. The sampling method was census. Data were analyzed using oneway Anova followed by Turkey HSD post-hoc test for pairwise comparison.
Results: Overall 138 students participated in this program (The response rate was 100%). Of the maximum achievable knowledge score (28), the average knowledge score in Tehran University was 22.8, in Shahid Beheshti University 20.31, in Azad University 22.31, and in Shahed University 22.16 (P=0.027) with significant statistical differences. However, But the average of attitude and education score of the students did not vary significantly (P>0.05).
Conclusion: Most of the students had sufficient knowledge about the risks of tobacco use and positive attitude toward tobacco cessation counseling. It was concluded that the students would only pay attention to the principals of smoking cessation counselling when they actually believe in them. Therefore, in order to improve the performance of students, training should be given on tobacco cessation techniques at the dental schools, thus, that students could play an effective role in tobacco cessation counseling for patients.

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