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M. Zarabian , M.h. Nekoofar , Bs. Marashi ,
Volume 16, Issue 4 (9 2004)

 Statement of Problem:Various methods have already been suggested to measure the working length in root canal therapy among which the use of paper point, tactile sense, radiography and electronic apex finder instruments can be named. Investigations on EAL (Electronic Apex Locator) indicate that these instruments can reduce the number of required radiography to a great extent. Moreover, in special cases such as patients with high risk reflex, pregnant women, the mental disabled and handicapped and also in cases with special anatomical structures these instruments are proper substitutes for radiography.
Purpose: The aim of this study was to compare the accuracy of an Iranian made apex finder instrument with Neosono Ultima EZ and radiography.
Materials and Methods: This study was conducted on 51 mandibular molars, devoid of calcification, internal and external resorption, severe root curve or fracture, which were extracted due to periodontal disease or severe caries. All the specimens were washed in 2.5% hypochlorite sodium and washing with water, kept in 10% formalin solution, under room temperature.
Results: The accuracy of the Iranian instrument was measured (81.8%) similar to that of radiography (81.2%). But the accuracy of Neosono Wtima EZ was (92.9%) which was higher than the two other methods.

Conclusion: No statistically significant difference was found between Neosono Ultima EZ instrument and two other groups, using SPSS 10 statistical soft ware.

M. Shahrabi , B. Seraj , Mh. Nekoofar , Sh. Moshrefian , Mj. Kharazi Fard ,
Volume 17, Issue 1 (7 2004)

Statement of Problem: Radiography is the most common technique in working length determination, however, because of its limitations is not considered as an ideal technique. Its application, particularly for children due to radiation hazards, technical problems in young and unco-operative children and the superimposition of permanent teeth bud on primary teeth root, lead to numerous problems.
Purpose: The goal of this study was to evaluate the accuracy of an electronic apex locator (EAL) in working length determination of primary teeth.
Materials and Methods: In this in-vitro study 96 canals of the extracted primary teeth, with at least 2/3 of the root length remained, were investigated. There were no obstructed canal, previous root canal therapy and perforation of pulp chamber floor. All working lengths were also measured by radiography. The results of Raypex 4 and radiography were compared with actual root canal lengths determined by direct observation. The applied EAL, in this study was called Raypex 4, a new device belonged to the fourth generation (Ratio Type). The results were analyzed by Chi-Square and Pearson correlation statistical tests.
Results: The accuracy of Raypex and radiography were 61.5% and 63.5%, respectively. The differences between Reypex 4 root canal length measurements and those of direct observation were not significant (P=0.08), but such difference between radiography and direct observation was statistically significant (P=0.01). The diameter of the apical foramen (the site of canal opening) did not affect on Raypex 4 accuray (P>0.05).
Conclusion: Considering the acceptable safetyness, Painlessness, simple and rapid application and an accuracy comparable to that of radiography, the use of Raypex4 EAL for the measurement of primary teeth length is suggested.
M. Tabrizizadeh , N. Nekoofar ,
Volume 18, Issue 4 (5 2006)

Background and Aim: Maintaining the original canal path and safety of canal preparation during instrumentation in curved canals have been subjected to many challenges. The aim of this study was to compare several parameters of root canal preparation using flexmaster rotary and hand used Nickel-Titanium instruments.

Materials and Methods: In this experimental study, sixty extracted human teeth with root canal curvatures between 10 and 42 degress were devided into two similar groups with equal mean curvatures. Root canals in one group were prepared using flexmaster rotary instruments and the other with NiTi hand files.After canal preparation, different parameters such as straightening of curved root canal, loss of working length, fracture rate, perforation and working time, were evaluated and compared between the two groups. Data were analyzed by t student test with p<0.05 as the limit of significance.

Results: Results showed that both instruments maintained the original canals' curvature. No loss of working length, instruments fracture or perforation was recorded. Working time was significantly shorter for flexmaster than hand files.

Conclusion: Both systems under investigation respected original root canal curvature and were safe to use. Therefore the rotary techniques could be successfully introduced to undergraduate endodontic programmes.

Ms. Sheikhrezaie, Mh. Nekoofar, K. Oloomi,
Volume 21, Issue 4 (19 2009)

Background and Aim: One of the unique properties of MTA is its setting ability in presence of moisture. The sealing ability of MTA used as a root-end filling was shown to be unaffected by the presence of blood, in vitro. It has been recommended that, because of MTA ability to set in the presence of blood, there is no need to dry the perforation site before MTA placement. On the other hand, based on an in vitro study, it is recommended that hemorrhage be controlled at the perforation site and blood be removed from the perforation walls before placement of tooth-colored MTA. Blood contamination may also affect the crystalline structure of MTA. The microhardness of a material is influenced substantially by some fundamental properties of the material such as crystal structure stability. Thus, it can be used as an indicator of the setting process. It can also indicate the effect of various setting conditions on the overall strength of a material. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of blood contamination on microhardness of white and gray MTA as an indicator of their setting process.

Materials and Methods: In groups 1 and 2 each material has been mixed with distilled water according to manufacturer,s instruction (No contamination groups). In groups 3 and 4 samples were prepared like groups 1 and 2 but the surface of material placed in contact with blood (Surface blood contamination groups). Samples of groups 5 and 6 were mixed with blood instead of distilled water and also the surfaces of the materials were placed in contact with blood (Mixed with blood groups). All samples were stored in 370C and 100% humidity for 96 hours. The microhardness of the samples was measured with Vickers test.

Results: White MTA samples which have not contaminated with blood had the highest microharness (59.9±11.4 N/mm2) while gray MTA mixed with blood had the lowest hardness (18.45±7.8 N/mm2). One-way ANOVA test showed that contamination with blood significantly reduces the microhardness of both white and gray MTA (p<0.001). The difference between white MTA and gray MTA was significant in groups of no contamination (p<0.001), surface blood contamination (p=0.043), and mixed with blood (p<0.001) according to T-Test analysis. In all of them white MTA had higher hardness than gray MTA.

Conclusion: According to results of our study we recommend that hemorrhage should be controlled and any blood contamination should be removed before placement of both white and gray MTA.

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