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Niloofar Shadman, Shahram Farzin Ebrahimi, Arezo Abrishami, Hasty Sattari,
Volume 25, Issue 3 (1 2012)

Background and Aims: The purpose of this experimental study was to investigate the shear bond strength of three new adhesive systems to enamel and dentin of permanent human teeth using three new etch and rinse and self-etch adhesive systems.
Materials and Methods: Sixty intact caries-free third molars were selected and randomly divided into 6 groups. Flat buccal and lingual enamel and dentin surfaces were prepared and mounted in the acrylic resin perpendicular to the plan of the horizon. Adhesives used in this study were Tetric N-Bond, AdheSE and AdheSE-One F (Ivoclar/Vivadent, Schaan, Liechtenstein). The adhesives were applied on the surfaces and cured with quartz tungsten halogen curing unit (600 mW/cm2 intensity) for 20 s. After attaching composite to the surfaces and thermocycling (500 cycles, 5-55ºC), shear bond strength was measured using a universal testing machine at a crosshead speed of 0.5 mm/min. The failure modes were examined under a stereomicroscope. The data were statistically analyzed using T-test, one-way ANOVA, Tukey and Fisher's exact tests.
Results: In enamel, Tetric N-Bond (28.57±4.58 MPa) and AdheSE (21.97±7.6 MPa) had significantly higher bond strength than AdheSE-One F (7.16±2.09 MPa) (P<0.0001). Tetric N-Bond had higher bond strength than AdheSE but there was not any significant difference between them (P=0.093). In dentin, there were significantly differences among all adhesives (P<0.001). Tetric N-Bond (20.62±3.03 MPa) showed the highest and AdheSE-One F (6.54±1.13 MPa) had the lowest value. The bond strength in enamel was higher than that observed in dentin and the difference was significant in Tetric N-Bond (P=0.044) and AdheSE (P=0.000) groups. There were no significant differences in the mode of failures among groups (P>0.05).
Conclusion: Shear bond strength to dentin in Tetric N-Bond (etch and rinse system( was higher than self-etch adhesives (AdheSE and AdheSE-One F). The bond strength to enamel and dentin in two-step self-etch (AdheSE) was higher than one-step self-etch (AdheSE-One F).

Sadighe Mozafar, Mandana Sattari, Somayeh Kameli, Zohre Sadat Hosseinipour, Mohammad Reza Sedighian Rad,
Volume 34, Issue 0 (5-2021)

Background and Aims: Survival of periodontal ligament (PDL) cells after avulsion is an important factor in treatment prognosis. Grapefruit Seed Extract (GSE) can be a proper environment for preserving periodontal ligament cells. The objective of this study was to analyze the effect of different concentrations of GSE on the proliferation of fibroblast PDL cells.
Materials and Methods: In this study, the undifferentiated PDL fibroblasts were obtained from two human premolars teeth and cultured in Dulbecco’s modified Eagle’s medium (DMEM). The cultured cells were exposed to different concentrations of GSE. The positive and negative control groups were cultured in fetal bovine serum (FBS) 10% and in a medium without FBS 10%, respectively. The plates were incubated for 1, 6, 12, 24, and 48 hrs. The PDL cell viability was assessed by MTT (3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide) assay. Statistical analysis of data was accomplished using repeated measure ANOVA with Post HOC Tukey, P<0.05 was considered statistically significant.
Results: We found out that among different concentrations of GSE, 1:128 had the most impact on undifferentiated PDL fibroblasts. Although, the cell vitality was higher in the twelfth hour, 1:128 GSE and in the forty-eighth hour, 1:1024 GSE than the positive control group but they were not statistically significant (P>0.05). Furthermore, all the samples were similar to the positive control group in three of the five timeperiods (P>0.05).
Conclusion: GSE was more effective in fewer concentration and longer periods and it had no toxic effect on PDL cells. Therefore, GSE can be considred as a promoting medium in PDL regeneration of avulsed permanent teeth in the future.

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