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Showing 21 results for Adhesive

F. Maleknejad , Aa. Hoseini , M.  ghawamnasiri , T.  salari ,
Volume 15, Issue 2 (5-2002)

Composite resin restorative materials, that nowadays are used as tooth-colour materials, have both benefits and weaknesses. One of these weaknesses is the contraction resulted from resin polymerization which influences on the composite dentin bond strength and it has been tried to be eliminated by different bonding systems. The aim of this in-vitro study was to compare the dentin bond strength of two dentine adhesive systems: multi-step Scoth Bond Multipurpose (SBMP) and single- step Excite, by two composites of Ideal Makoo and Tetric. One hundred sixty (160) sound human molars were selected. At first they were debrided and mounted with acrylic resin in molds. The enamel of the buccal surface was eliminated by diamond burs. To provide a flat dentin surface, it was removed about lmm. Then, based on the type of dentin adhesive, they were divided into two groups of 30 teeth and were applied on the exposed dentine surface according to the manufacturer's instructions. Then, each group was divided into two subgroups of 15, based on the type of composite resin. Cylinders of the desired composite resin, attached to the dentin surface, were used for 80 seconds. The samples were stored in 100% humidity (37°c) for 24 hours. The bond strengths was measured by a cross head blade with the speed of 2mm/min. Variance analysis and Duncan test, with 95% confidence level, showed that statistically, two factors of adhesive and composite, interact on each other, in bond strength. There was no significant difference in bond strength, between two composites with similar adhesives, however, comparing two different adhesives with the same composite, showed that the bond strength of Tetric with Excite (28.39) was more than that of SBMP (17.98 Mpa). Finally, it was recognized that among four experimental groups, there was only a significant difference in bond strengths, between Tetric-Excite with Tetric- SBMP. This study shows that dentin bond strength is influenced by dentin bonding agents, composite type and dentin structure, and using a type of composite with a dentin bonding agent, manufactured by the same company, results in a higher bond strength.
M. Mortazavi , Z. Bahrololoomi ,
Volume 16, Issue 1 (4-2003)

Statement of Problem: Microleakage presents the major cause for restorations failure in the oral cavity resulting in postoperative sensitivity, pulp irritation and secondary caries formation.

Aim: The aim of this study was to compare two dentinal adhesive systems of fifth generation and copalite varnish in reducing microleakage of amalgam restorations in primary teeth.
Materials and Methods: In this in-vitro study, 100 class V amalgam restorations were prepared on the buccal or lingual surfaces of primary molar and canine teeth. Samples were randomly divided into four groups (25 samples each). No liner was used for the first group and the second group restorations were lined with copalite varnish. Two dentin adhesives, called Syntac C and Single Bond, were used for the third and fourth groups, respectively. At the next stage, the samples were immersed in 5% fuschin solution for 24 hours, then sectioned buccolingually, and examined under a stereomicroscope for microleakage evaluation.
Results: There was a significant difference between four groups statistically (PO.000I), Comparing four groups, the first and fourth ones, demonstrated the most and the least microleakage, respectively.

Conclusion: The present study showed that new dentinal adhesive systems caused microleakage reduction in amalgam restorations of primary teeth.

M. Ghavam-Nasiri , F. Malek-Nejad , A. Rohani , M. Akbari ,
Volume 16, Issue 2 (5-2003)

Statement of Problem: A lot of efforts have been made to create a complete adaptation between tooth and amalgam restorations.
Purpose: The aim of this study was to evaluate microleakage and interfacial micromorphology of amalgam restorations lined with dentin adhesives, namely One Coat Bond, Syntac, Excite and Copalite,as liners.
Materials and Methods: 144 intact human canine teeth were selected. Then class V cavities, with enamel and dentinal margins, were prepared on each of them. Cavities were lined with different dentin bonding systems (Syntac, One Coat Bond and Excite) according to the manufacturer's instructions and restored with Oralloy and Cinalloy, non gamma 2 spherical amalgams and Aristaloy a non gamma 2 Admixed alloy. Copalite was used in the group, served as controls. After thirty days storage in synthetic saliva at 37°c, the specimens were thermocycled in saliva (4000 cycles). The degree of microleakage was assessed by means of basic fushin dye penetration and recorded. The gap width was evaluated with Scanning Electron Microscope. Pearson and %2 tests were used to analyze the results.
Results: None of the systems, tested in this study, eliminated microleakage completely, Pearson's correlation coefficient showed a positive correlation between gap and microleakage (P<0/05).Statistical significant differences were revealed among the liners regarding gap and microleakage (P<0.05).One Coat Bond and Syntac appeared to leak less than other groups. The gap width by One Coat Bond and Syntac were respectively 0.35 and 0.3 urn in dentine, 0.2 and 0.1 in enamel. Excite and copalite gap width in dentine and enamel were 1,3-1.36 urn and 0.3-0.6, respectively. The type of amalgam did not have any effect in the degree of microleakage and gap width (P>0/05).
Conclusion: One Coat Bond and Syntac, comparing to Excite and Copalite, showed less microleakage and gap width.
F. Shafiee , Z. Borhan Haghighi ,
Volume 17, Issue 3 (8-2004)

Statement of Problem: Because dental amalgam does not adhere to tooth structure, using adhesive cements in amalgam-bonded restorations have been increased.

Purpose: The goal of this in-vitro study was to compare the effects of three types of glass ionomer as adhesive liners as well as varnish liner in increasing fracture resistance of teeth restored with amalgam.

Materials and Methods: Seventy extracted human maxillary premolars were selected and MOD cavities were prepared on them excluding ten intact teeth as positive control group and ten cavity prepared teeth without restoration as negative control group. All the prepared teeth were then restored with spherical amalgam (gs.80) with one of the following liners silver alloy glass ionomer liner, conventional glass ionomer liner, varnish liner, resin-modified glass ionomer and resin-modified glass ionomer with delayed light curing. The teeth were stored in 37C distilled water for 7 days and were then loaded under compressive strength using an Instron testing machine. The force required to fracture teeth were recorded and the data were analyzed statistically using ANOVA and Tukey HSD tests.

Results: Statistically significant differences were observed in fracture resistance between restored and non-restored samples. Comparisons between groups attributed significant effects to resin-modified glass ionomer in increasing fracture resistance of amalgam restored teeth (P<0.05). In most specimens, one cusp was separated from tooth structure whereas amalgam remained bonded to the intact cusp. Conclusion: According to these findings, resin-modified glass ionomer put a statistically significant effect in fracture resistance of amalgam-restored teeth.

H. Kermanshah , Mj. Kharazi Fard , H. Yesharim ,
Volume 18, Issue 1 (3-2005)

Statement of Problem: Porcelain restorations are susceptible to fracture and a common method for repairing is the use of silane and composite on etched porcelain. Although HF is very effective in porcelain etching but has detrimental effects on tissues.

Purpose: In this study, the effect of APF and PHA was compared with HF in porcelain etching. Also the role of silane, unfilled resin and dentin bonding in bond strength of composite- porcelain was evaluated.

Methods and Materials: In this experimental in-vitro study, one-hundred twenty porcelain square blocks (552 mm) were prepared and bonding surfaces of each sandblasted. Samples were divided into three groups. The first group (n=40) were etched with buffered HF 9.5% (Ultradent) for 1 min., the second group (n=40) were etched with Iranian APF 1.23% (Kimia) for 10 minutes and the third group (n=40) were etched with Iranian PHA 37% (Kimia) for 1 min. Ultradent silane was applied on the surfaces of half of cases in each group. On the surfaces of half of silane-treated samples unfilled resin was applied and dentin bonding was used on the surfaces of the remaining. Samples without silane were treated in a similar manner. Composite cylinder with 4mm diameter and 2 mm height was bonded to porcelain. Specimens were stored in 37°C distilled water for 24 hours and subjected to 500 cycles. Shear bond strength was measured with an Instron machine and type of fracture was evaluated using a stereomicroscope. Results were analyzed using 3 way ANOVA, Kaplan- Maier and Tukey HSD tests.

Results: Findings showed that PHA and APF roughened the porcelain surface without creating retentive micro undercuts but HF etches porcelain and creates retentive microundercuts. Ultradent silane had no significant effect on bond strength of porcelain- composite. Unfilled resin with Ultradent silane compared with dentin bonding with the same silane is more effective in bond strength of composite- porcelain.

Conclusion: Based on present study, application of Ultradent silane on sandblasted and etched porcelain with PHA or APF cannot be used as an alternative to this silane on sandblasted and etched porcelain with HF.

F. Shafiee , M. Motamedi , S. Zargham ,
Volume 18, Issue 4 (1-2006)

Background and Aim: The bonding mechanisms of self etching primers, based upon the simultaneous etching and priming of dentin, simplifies the bonding technique, but the efficiency of these systems is still controversial. This study compared the shear bond strength of three self etch adhesive systems in dry and wet conditions.

Materials and Method: In this experimental study, 77 intact bovine lower incisors with flat 600 grit sanded enamel surface were fixed in acrylic molds and divided into 7 groups, of 11 teeth. The enamel surfaces were treated according to a special procedure as follows: Group 1: Prompt L-Pop (PLP) in dry condition, Group 2: Prompt L-Pop in wet condition, Group 3: Clearfield SE Bond (CSEB) in dry condition, Group 4: Clearfield SE Bond in wet condition, Group 5: iBond (iB) in dry condition, Group 6: iBond in wet condition, Group 7: Margin Bond (Control) in dry condition. Surfaces were air dried for ten seconds, or blot dried in wet condition. Composite resin was bonded on the enamel and built up by applying a cylindric teflon split mold (4 mm height 2mm diameter). After 24 hours storage in dionized water at room temperature, all specimens were thermocycled and shear bond test was employed by a universal testing machine (Instron) with a cross-head speed of 1mm/min. The shear bond strength was recorded in MPa and data were analyzed with ANOVA and Scheffe statistical tests. P<0.05 was considered as statistically significant. The mode of failure was examined under a stereomicroscope.

Results: 1- Shear bond strength of CSEB in dry condition (21.5 ± 4.8 MPa) was significantly higher than PLP and iB groups (p<0.0001). 2- Shear bond strength of iB and PLP groups in dry condition (9.60 ± 2.2, 9.49 ± 3 MPa) were significantly lower than CSEB and control (2.99 ± 5.1 MPa) (P<0.0001). 3- There was no significant difference between PLP and iB groups in dry condition (P=1). 4- Shear bond strength of CSEB in wet condition (21.8 ± 3 MPa) was significantly higher than PLP and iB groups (P=0.0). 5- Shear bond strength of CSEB (10.8 ± 3 MPa) and PLP (10.6 ± 4 MPa) in wet condition were significantly lower than CSEB and Control groups (P=0.0). 6- There was no significant difference between PLP and iB groups in wet condition (P=0.99). 7- Shear bond strength of the three adhesives had no significant difference in dry and wet conditions (PLP: P= 0.53, CSEB: P= 0.84, iB: P= 0.53). The mode of failure in two groups of PLP and two groups of iB was predominantly in the adhesive bond and in the two groups of CSEB, mixed failure (adhesive with cohesive in composite) was predominantly observed.

Conclusion: CSEB had higher while iB and PLP showed lower bond strength to ground enamel. The three self-etch adhesives in this study did not show technique sensitivity to wet and dry enamel.

M. Farzin , F. Bahrani , Am. Rawa ,
Volume 19, Issue 2 (5-2006)

Background and Aim: One of the most important structural factors that facilitate patient’s acceptance of full denture, is adequate and appropriate retention. The objective of this study was to evaluate the retentive ability of four denture adhesives in vitro: Safe Saze-Gum Sealing-Denstet-Corega. 

Materials and Methods: This experimental study was conducted in vitro on the basis of measurement of adhesion and cohesion forces between acrylic disk and glass, with denture adhesive applied between them. At first the retentive ability of alcohol, water and artificial saliva was measured and recorded as control. Then the retention ability of different adhesives mixed once with water and next with artificial saliva was measured and compared. The procedure was repeated 7 times for each denture adhesive with 7 similar acrylic disks. Data were analyzed using. ANOVA and paired t test with p<0.05 as the limit of significance.

Result: Comparison of four powder denture adhesives showed that the highest retentive ability was observed in Denstet and the lowest in Safe-Saze. The retentive ability of Gum-Sealing was higher than Corega.

Conclusion: Based on the results of this study, significant differences exist among the retention ability of different denture adhesives.

A. Makarem , M. Ghavam Nassiri , M. Esmaili ,
Volume 19, Issue 4 (1-2007)

Background and Aim: Nanoleakage can cause discoloration around restoration margins, secondary caries, postoperative sensitivity and finally loss of restoration, thus adequate hybrid layer is of primary importance in prevention of nanoleakage in adhesive restorations. Because of structural differences between primary and permanent dentin, evaluation of nanoleakge in primary teeth is very important. The aim of this study was to evaluate the nanoleakage in composite restorations following application of self -etch and total-etch adhesives in primary and permanent teeth.

Materials and Methods: In this experimental study, Cl V cavities were prepared in buccal surfaces of 20 extracted primary molars and 20 extracted premolars. Each group was divided into 2 subgroups: In group (A), Gluma One Bond and in group (B), iBond adhesive materials were applied. After silver nitrate staining, specimens were mesiodistally sectioned and polished and then SEM examination was carried out to measure the nanoleakage .Data were analyzed statistically using, ANOVA and Duncan tests with p<0.05 as the limit of significance.

Results: Factors tested had no significant effect on each other. Primary teeth showed more nanoleakage than permanent teeth (P<0.05). Mean nanoleakage was significantly higher in cervical than occlusal margins (P<0.05) and also in iBond than in Gluma One Bond in primary teeth (P<0.05). In permanent teeth, the lowest nanoleakage was observed in Gluma One Bond.

Conclusion: The result of this study indicates that the use of total etch dentin adhesives (Gluma One Bond) in bonded restorations results in less nanoleakage in primary and permanent teeth.

M. Khoroushi , A. Abedini ,
Volume 20, Issue 1 (5-2007)

Background and Aim: Patients always complain about metallic color of amalgam restorations. Covering amalgam by composite can solve this problem. Since polymerization shrinkage is a serious shortcoming in composites, application of the combined amalgam and composite restoration is one of the methods to reduce leakage in the cervical margins of posterior restorations. The aim of this invitro study was to evaluate the microleakage of amalgam/composite interface when Rely-X ARC adhesive resin cement was used in the joint.

Materials and Methods: Twenty-four sound extracted premolars were chosen. Mesial and distal class II conventional cavities were prepared and the samples were divided into 4 groups of 12. In all groups, the bases of the cavities were restored with amalgam and then the remaining part was filled by composite resin. Specimens in groups 1 and 2 were restored with composite-resin, immediately after condensing amalgam without or with application of Rely-X ARC (3M, ESPE) respectively. In groups 3 and 4, composite resin were applied 24 hours after condensation of amalgam, without or with application of Rely-X ARC respectively. After polishing and thermocycling, all specimens were prepared for dye penetration and the degree of leakage was scored and analyzed using Kruskall Wallis test with p<0.05 as the level of significance.

Results: The frequency of dye penetration in different groups was obtained. The most and the least scores were observed in groups 3 and 4 respectively. No statistically significant difference was observed in different methods.

Conclusion: None of the methods in this study could seal the amalgam/composite-resin interface.

P. Salehi, Hr. Pakshir, A. Noorafshan, N. Naseri,
Volume 22, Issue 1 (8-2009)

Background and Aim: At the end of fixed orthodontic treatment, enamel damages are affected by amount of adhesive remnants. Thus, determining the factors involves in the amount of adhesive remnants e.g. the types of resins and the methods used for debonding is of necessity. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of the composite resin type and debonding pliers on enamel surface by a new method in measuring the adhesive remnant.

Materials and Methods: In this interventionally in-vitro study, 120 extracted human premolars were randomly divided into four groups of 30 each. The standard edgewise metal brackets were bonded on the teeth with two pastes self-cure composite "Concise" in the first and second groups, and with No-mix composite "Unite" in the third and fourth groups. the debonding was done by means of Lift off Debonding Instrument "LODI" (3M-Unitek), in first and third groups, and Bracket Removing Plier (Dentaurum), in the second and forth groups, respectively. After debonding, all teeth were evaluated with steriology software (stereolith version 1) for comparing the amount of adhesive remnants between the four groups. For data analysis, One-way ANOVA and independent t.test were used.

Results: The fourth group showed the lowest adhesive on the enamel surface and the most on the bracket surface with significant differences with other three groups (p<0.01).

Conclusion: The use of Dentaurum debonding plier with shear-peel force when used with the Unite adhesive (group 4), would decrease the adhesive remnants on the enamel surface.

M. Ghavam, M. Atai, M. Imani, M. Reshad,
Volume 22, Issue 2 (11-2009)

Background and Aim: In spite of the achievements in the field of dental adhesives, we are facing challenges with dentine bonding resistance, strength and stability. According to recent studies the role of MMP inhibitors in association with bonding,s persistence and leakage reduction and restoration,s persistence is important. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of doxycycline as a MMP inhibitor on the degree of conversion (DC) of an experimental dental adhesive.

Materials and Methods: In this experimental study, a new dental adhesive blend was prepared by mixing doxycycline monohydrate (in concentrations of 0.0, 0.25, 0.5, and 1 wt.%) with monomers. The monomers were composed of 12% Bis-GMA and 10% TMPTMA, 28% HEMA, and 50% Ethanol by weight for all groups. Comphorquinone and amines were chosen as photo initiator system. Degree of conversion of all adhesives was measured using FTIR spectroscopy. The results were analyzed using one-way ANOVA and Tukey post hoc tests.

Results: The results showed that addition of 0.25, 0.5, and 1 weight percent doxycycline did not significantly reduce the DC of the adhesives compared to 0.0% control group (p>0.05%).

Conclusion: According to the results of this study, adding doxycycline to the adhesives did not adversely affect the DC.

L. Pishevar, Sm. Mosavinasab, M. Jafari, K. Omidi,
Volume 22, Issue 3 (12-2009)

Background and Aim: Sodium hypochlorite can remove the organic phase of the demineralized dentin and it produces direct resin bonding with hydroxyapatite crystals. Therefore, the hydrolytic degradation of collagen fibrils which might affect the bonding durability is removed. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of collagen fibrils removal by 10% NaOCl on dentin shear bond strength of two total etch and self etch adhesive systems.
Materials and Methods: Sixty extracted human premolar teeth were used in this study. Buccal surface of teeth were grounded until dentin was exposed. Then teeth were divided into four groups. According to dentin surface treatment, experimental groups were as follows: Group I: Single Bond (3M) according to manufacture instruction, Group II: 10% NaOCl+Single bond (3M), Group III: Clearfil SE Bond (Kuraray) according to manufacture instruction, and Group IV: Clearfil SE Bond primer. After that, the specimens were immersed in 50% acetone solution for removing extra monomer. Then the specimens were rinsed and dried. 10% NaOCl was applied and finally adhesive was used. Then composite was bonded to the treated surfaces using a 4 2 mm cylindrical plastic mold. Specimens were thermocycled for 500 cycles (5-55ºC). A shear load was employed by a universal testing machine with a cross head speed of 1mm/min. The data were analyzed for statistical significance with One-way ANOVA, Two-way ANOVA and Tukey HSD post-hoc tests.
Results: The mean shear bond strengths of groups were as follows: Single Bond=16.8±4.2, Clearfil SE Bond=23.7±4.07, Single Bond+NaOCl=10.5±4.34, Clearfil SE Bond+NaOCl=23.3±3.65 MPa. Statistical analysis revealed that using 10% NaOCl significantly decreased the shear bond strength in Single Bond group (P=0.00), but caused no significant difference in the shear bond strength in Clearfil SE Bond group (P=0.99).
Conclusion: Based on the results of this study, NaOCl treatment did not improve the bond strength in self etch adhesive and caused a significant decrease in the bond strength of total etch adhesive system.

H. Torabzadeh, A. Ghasemi, F. Asadian, A. Akbarzadeh,
Volume 22, Issue 4 (1-2010)

Background and Aims: In this in-vitro study, the effect of multiple adhesive coating on the microshear bond strength of composite to dentin and surface microhardness of dentin after treatment with four adhesives (One Step Plus, One Step, Single Bond, Single Bond 2) were evaluated.

Materials and Methods: One hundred intact human molars were cut to obtain disks of dentin having 2 mm thickness. For the microshear bond test, sixty disks were randomly divided into four groups. In each group one type of adhesive was used. In one half of a disk two layers and in another half six layers of adhesive were applied. Cylinders with 1mm height was filled with a composite and light cured. The cross-head speed was 0.5 mm/min. Vickers microhardness was tested on forty dentin disks which divided into four groups and prepared in the same manner used for microshear bond test. Data were analyzed by Two-way ANOVA and Tukey tests.

Results: The highest and lowest bond strength were recorded as 29.49 ± 5.74 MPa (One Step Plus 6 layers), and 21.23 ± 4.83 MPa (One Step Plus 2 layers), respectively. The results indicated that One Step Plus bond strength in 6 Layers was significantly higher than 2 layers. The highest and lowest dentin hardness values were
39.08 ± 8.34VHN (Single Bond 2 layers) and 28.53 ± 5.98 VHN (One Step Plus 6 layers). None of the adhesives exhibited significant difference in hardness with regards to the layers applied (P>0.05). Presence of filler in adhesives had no significant effect on bond strength (P=0.05) whereas caused significant decrease in the dentin microhardness (P<0.05). In addition, type of solvent had significant effect on the bond strength and bond strength was significantly higher in acetone-base adhesives (P<0.05). However, dentin microhardness was significantly higher in the ethanol-base adhesives (P<0.05).

Conclusion: Multiple adhesive coating had no influence on the microshear bond strength of composite to dentin and dentin surface microhardness. It was dependent on the type of adhesive used.

M. Ghavam, S. Arami, M. Reshad, M. Imani, M. Ataei, M. Mirzaei, E. Yasini, M. Hasani Tabatabaei, A. Pahlavan, H. Kermanshah ,
Volume 22, Issue 4 (1-2010)

Background and Aims: In spite of the advances achieved in the field of dentin adhesives, the longevity of bond to dentin is still a challenge. According to recent studies, Matrix Metaloproteinase (MMP) inhibitors can increase clinical longevity of bonding and decrease leakage. The aim of this study was to evaluate the amount and pattern of doxycycline release from an experimental dentin adhesive containing this MMP inhibitor.

Materials and Methods: In this experimental study, specimens containing 0.25 and 0.5 loading percent of doxycycline in an experimental monomer were prepared in cylindrical moulds of 12 mm diameter and 2 mm thickness. The adhesive monomer was composed of 12 wt% Bis-GMA, 10 wt% TMPTMA, 28 wt% HEMA and 50 wt% ethanol. Camphorquinone and amine were used as initiators.

Results: Addition of 0.25 and 0.5 w% doxycycline showed linear release in both groups. Increasing the loading percent of doxycycline caused more release. The release continued during the test period.

Conclusion: Doxycycline release was observed from the experimental adhesive. Further studies in this field will help in preparing adhesive systems with more clinical longevity.

Niloofar Shadman, Shahram Farzin Ebrahimi, Arezo Abrishami, Hasty Sattari,
Volume 25, Issue 3 (7-2012)

Background and Aims: The purpose of this experimental study was to investigate the shear bond strength of three new adhesive systems to enamel and dentin of permanent human teeth using three new etch and rinse and self-etch adhesive systems.
Materials and Methods: Sixty intact caries-free third molars were selected and randomly divided into 6 groups. Flat buccal and lingual enamel and dentin surfaces were prepared and mounted in the acrylic resin perpendicular to the plan of the horizon. Adhesives used in this study were Tetric N-Bond, AdheSE and AdheSE-One F (Ivoclar/Vivadent, Schaan, Liechtenstein). The adhesives were applied on the surfaces and cured with quartz tungsten halogen curing unit (600 mW/cm2 intensity) for 20 s. After attaching composite to the surfaces and thermocycling (500 cycles, 5-55ºC), shear bond strength was measured using a universal testing machine at a crosshead speed of 0.5 mm/min. The failure modes were examined under a stereomicroscope. The data were statistically analyzed using T-test, one-way ANOVA, Tukey and Fisher's exact tests.
Results: In enamel, Tetric N-Bond (28.57±4.58 MPa) and AdheSE (21.97±7.6 MPa) had significantly higher bond strength than AdheSE-One F (7.16±2.09 MPa) (P<0.0001). Tetric N-Bond had higher bond strength than AdheSE but there was not any significant difference between them (P=0.093). In dentin, there were significantly differences among all adhesives (P<0.001). Tetric N-Bond (20.62±3.03 MPa) showed the highest and AdheSE-One F (6.54±1.13 MPa) had the lowest value. The bond strength in enamel was higher than that observed in dentin and the difference was significant in Tetric N-Bond (P=0.044) and AdheSE (P=0.000) groups. There were no significant differences in the mode of failures among groups (P>0.05).
Conclusion: Shear bond strength to dentin in Tetric N-Bond (etch and rinse system( was higher than self-etch adhesives (AdheSE and AdheSE-One F). The bond strength to enamel and dentin in two-step self-etch (AdheSE) was higher than one-step self-etch (AdheSE-One F).

Alireza Danesh Kazemi, Abdolrahim Davari, Seied Majid Mosavi Nasab, Ehsan Geravand,
Volume 25, Issue 4 (1-2013)

Background and Aims: Re-application of microbrush may affect the micro tensile bond strength of adhesives to dentin. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of re-application of microbrushes on the micro tensile bond strength of an adhesive to dentin.

Materials and Methods: Thirty freshly extracted molars teeth were collected and enamel of occlusal surface were removed to expose superficial dentin. Then superficial dentin was etched, washed and partially air dried. According to the times of application of microbrush, teeth were divided into two test groups. In group 1, new microbrushs were used, but in group 2, the ones that were already used for twice were included. Ambar dentin bonding agent (FGM/Brazil) was applied to the etched dentin with microbrushes according to the manufacturer's instructions. Then the crown of teeth was built up with LLiss (FGM/Brazil) composite resin. The teeth were sectioned in buccolingual direction to obtain 1mm slabs. Then 50 hourglass- shape samples were made from 30 teeth (25 Specimens per group). The microtensile bond strength of the specimens was tested using MTD500 (SD Mechatronik, Germany). The data were statistically analyzed by T-test.

Results: The mean values for the microtensile bond strength were 30.49±7.18 and 23.61±9.06 MPa±SD for the first and second groups, respectively. There was significant difference between the groups (P=0.005).

Conclusion: Microbrushes should not be used for more than one cavity preparation.

Alireza Daneshkazemi, Abdolrahim Davari, Majid Mousavinasab, Alireza Zahedifar,
Volume 26, Issue 2 (5-2013)

Background and Aims: Today, use of adhesive systems is the most common materials in restorative dental procedures. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of different air-drying periods on the microtensile bond strength of composite to dentin using adhesive.

Materials and Methods: 15 sound molar teeth were selected. The an occlusal surfaces of teeth were removed with silicon carbide disks (3M/USA) to reach flat surface of dentin. Then according to the air drying of solvent, the teeth were divided to five groups. After 5 sec etching and rinsing for 15 sec , the teeth were air dried for 3 sec . Then Singlebond (3M) was used with different air-drying times (0s, 2s, 5s, 10s, 30s) and cured. Then after insertion and curing of Saremco (microhybrid low shrinkage/Switzerland) composite, the teeth were thermocycled for 500 cycles. Then hour glass slabs with 1 mm2 interface was created. Specimens were then subjected to µTBS force until fracture. Data were analyzed using ANOVA and Bonferroni tests.

Results: Statistical tests showed that there were significant differences between bond strength of groups (P=0.002). The mean of µTBS for the 2 Sec and 30 Sec evaporating time was the most and the least vawes, respectively.

Conclusion: An optimum air-drying time for solvent evaporation was the lowest time recommended by the manufacturer. Over and under evaporation time decreased µTBS significantly.

Davari Abdolrahim , Kazemi Alireza Danesh , Mousavinasab Majid , Mohammadi Najmeh Pour ,
Volume 26, Issue 3 (8-2013)

  Background and Aims: Different adhesives with different solvents may have different solvent evaporation rates. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the solvent evaporation in the self etch and total etch adhesive in different air drying times.

  Materials and Methods: Five adhesives were used in this study: Excite, Prime & Bond NT, UNO, Single Bond, SE Bond Primer. Twelve drops of each adhesive were used for each period of air drying (5, 15, 30 sec). The percentage of mass loss was measured during each test. Data were analized using two-way ANOVA and Tukey.

  Results: Acetone base adhesives showed more loss of mass than other adhesives (P<0.01). P&B NT showed more loss of mass than other adhesives in all air drying times (P<0.01). Adhesives showed different evaporation rates in different air times (P<0.01).

  Conclusion: Adhesives with acetone/water or alcohol/water solvent shows more stable behavior in comparison with adhesives containing pure aqueous solvents.

Mehran Bahrami, Maryam Memarian, Farinaz Khodadad Kashi,
Volume 28, Issue 3 (10-2015)

Background and Aims: Residual ridge resorption is an unpredictable, unavoidable and time-dependent process which occurs in denture-wearing patients especially those who use mandibular dentures. This process causes more problems in mandible because of its less support, tongue forces and more resorption. Inserting implants in many of these patients requires bone grafts. Overdentures are also more expensive. Denture adhesives are the last option to improve retention and masticatory function in denture-wearers with severe resorption of alveolar ridge. Nowadays only a few denture adhesives are used in Iran and there is not much information about their standard features including, pH, bond strength and washability. The objective of this study was to examine and compare the mentioned characteristics of four denture adhesives (Professional, Corega, Fittydent and Fixodent) and to introduce the most suitable denture adhesive for clinical use.

Materials and Methods: All the methodologies of ISO 10873:2010 were applied. To measure the pH value, 1±0.1g of each denture adhesive was diluted with 5g of propylene glycol and mixed with water. Using pH meter, pH of each group was measured separately for 4 times (n=4) and results were recorded. For the washability test, 4 dentures were fabricated (n=4) and each group of denture adhesives was placed on a denture according to manufacture instructions. For simulating mouth environment specimens were placed in water at 37±2 ̊C bath for 1 hour and then washed with a plastic brush. Specimens were examined for any residual adhesive and the results were recorded. For bond strength test, a sample holder was gently filled with denture adhesives and was attached to the holding arm of bond strength testing device (Santam, STM 20, Iran). Specimens were placed in 300ml water bath at 37±2 ̊C for 10 minutes, and then shaken to be dried and placed in the bond strength testing device. 10N force with 5mm/min rate was applied to the specimen. The force was maintained for 30s and then device arm was pulled back and the highest number was recorded with computer software (Santam Machine Controller v4.19, Iran). The test performed 8 times (n=8) for each adhesive and 8 results were recorded. Data were analyzed using ANOVA test for comparing the bond strength with a significant level fixed
at 0.05.

Results: Professional and Corega adhesives had more neutral pH than that of Fittydent and Fixodent which were more acidic. Washability test showed no remaining mass of any adhesive and there was not any statistically significant difference between groups (P>0.05). Fittydent and Corega adhesives showed higher bond strength than that of Professional and Fixodent and this difference was statistically significant (P<0.05).

Conclusion: Professional and Corega adhesives had less acidity. Thus they cause less harmful effects on the oral mucosa than that of Fittydent and Fixodent and should be indicated in patients with little-tolerant oral mucousa such as diabetous, iron-deficiency anemia and hypertention. All the groups had acceptable washability. Fittydent and Corega had higher bond strength than that of Professional and Fixodent. Therefore in complete-denture-wearers who require more retention as a result of severe ridge resorption, macrotruma, and maladaptiivity, Fittydent and Corega seems to be more acceptable.

Mohammad Javad Moghadas, Ehsan Rohani, Sara Majidinia, Najmeh Ojrati, Negin Vatanparast,
Volume 31, Issue 4 (1-2019)

Background and Aims: The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effect of applying hydrophobic resin after use of different generation of the bonding systems on nanoleakage.
Materials and Methods: 20 third molar teeth were selected. The teeth were randomly divided into 4 groups of 5, each was treated using the fourth, fifth, sixth, and seven generation of dentin bonding. Then, the crown of teeth was sectioned from the CEJ region and each specimen was divided into two halves with mesiodistal cut, one half for the application of dentin bonding without the addition of a hydrophobic resin, and the other for the same dentin bonding by the addition of a hydrophobic resin. Afterwards, the specimens were restotred by composites. After placement of specimens in silver nitrate, the amount of nanoleakage was evaluated by SEM. Data were analyzed using a repeated measurement statistical analysis (α=0.05).
Results: The use of hydrophobic resins decreased nanoleakage and range of variations in all groups (P<0.05). This reduction was greater for total-etch dentin bonding. Higher degree of nanoleakage occurred in total-etch dentin bonding in most evaluated areas. In general, Clearfil S³ bond showed the least percent of the nanoleakage.
Conclusion: All dentin bonding systems showed some degree of reduction in nanoleakage after hydrophobic layer application and the reduction was greater in Total-etch adhesives systems.

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