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Showing 11 results for Anxiety

A. Farhadinasab, A. Shekofteh Rad, Kh. Mani Kashani,
Volume 21, Issue 1 (10-2008)

Background and Aim: Oral health is a sign of overall health. Sometimes fear of dental office deprives  patients from receiving proper care. This problem decreases the self-esteem of dentists and can also reduce health indices. Understanding anxiety factors may help solve this problem. The purpose of this study was to assess anxiety in patients undergoing treatment in dental offices in the city of Hamedan.

Materials and Methods: In this analytic cross sectional study patients above 9 years old and referred to general dental offices in Hamedan were randomly selected and surveyed with questionnaires in two stages. The first questionnaire included 17 standard items based on Dental Anxiety Scale (DAS) and screened anxious patients. Then 400 anxious patients were evaluated with a questionnaire of 64 items based on Corah scale. Data were analyzed by SPSS 13 with multivariate analysis of variance. P<0.05 was considered as the level of significance.

Results: Factors related to dental office environment with 31.1%, those related to personal imaginations with 19.4% and factor concerning office management and dental treatment each with 19.1% frequency showed to be most related to anxiety in patients. Improper rest-rooms (46.3%), blood stains in the environment (44.5%) and dirty dentist's gowns (43.8%) were reported to be the most prominent environmental factors. Among the factors originated from personal imaginations, the risk of disease transmission was accounted for the most justifiable source of anxiety (67.3%). Regarding factors concerning office management, dentist's nervous behavior (47.8%) and his carelessness to the patient (46.8%) were considered as the most significant anxiety sources. Extraction, injection and root canal therapy (48.3%, 44.5%, 44.3%) were the treatment related factors of higher importance respectively. Previous painful treatment experience (47.3%) and poor oral hygiene of the dentist (34.5%) were reported to be among the other justifiable anxiety sources. In all mentioned situations, variations in anxiety factors were significantly higher in women.

Conclusion: This study showed that the main cause of anxiety in patients undergoing treatment in dental offices in Hamedan is their personal imagination which is by far more obvious in women than men.

J. Momen Beitollahi, M. Sahebjamie, A. Manavi, T. Farrokhnia, Ar. Zohiroddin, B. Golestan,
Volume 21, Issue 4 (1-2009)

Background and Aim: One of the most common causes of facial pain, is muscular pain. MPDS is one of the most important disorders of facial area that many of patients suffer from pain, tenderness of one or more masticatory muscles and limitation of movement. Psychological factors play an important role in MPDS. Anxiety and depression by increasing muscle tension, can cause myofacial pain syndrome They can also accompany the syndrome as comorbidities or develop as sequelae of chronic pain and disability. Many approaches can be used to treat myofacial pain syndrome. The least invasive and least traumatic approach should be se.lected. Often, treatment for myofacial pain syndrome fails, because underlying problems go untreated. Progressive Muscle Relaxation (PMR) is mainly used for treating anxiety and depression. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of PMR in improving signs and symptoms of patients with MPDS.

Materials and Methods: In this before and after clinical trial study, 33 patients with MPDS that had anxiety and or mild depression(were assessed by Beck Inventory)were treated by PMR in a period of a month (3 visits)and were followed up until 2 months. Analysis was done using paired t-test/ wilcoxon-sign-rank test.

Results: The results of this study showed that variants like intensity of pain, tenderness of masticatory muscles, maximum opening of mouth with and without pain, anxiety (p<0.001) and depression (p=0.001) improved significant 16 after treatment in comparison with before treatment.

Conclusion: In conclusion, PMR is effective in improving signs and symptoms in patients with MPDS. Therefore psychological status should be considered in treatment plan of these patients.

Mahvash Mousavi Jazi, Mahsa Tarashi, Maryam Abdolrazaghi,
Volume 26, Issue 2 (5-2013)

Background and Aims: Periodontitis does not affect on all patients by the same way. There are some risk factors in some people that make them more sensitive to progress of periodontitis. Smoking, uncontrolled diabetes, and special pathogens increase the risk of periodontitis. Other factors such as stress, depression and anxiety, are not crucial risk factors for periodontitis yet. Biologic explanation of this relation is that mental conditions and exposure to stressful situations can alter immune response. The aim of this study was to review the psychological factors of anxiety and depression associated with periodontitis.

Materials and Methods: For this review article, we have searched through internet by the following keywords periodontal disease, anxiety, depression. We have tried to cover almost all dental– related sites and journals as well as Pubmed from 1990-2010.

Conclusion: Most published studies support a positive relationship between periodontitis and several psycho-social factors. Life style, stressful conditions, hormonal changes, nonchalance in oral hygiene, habits such as smoking are predisposing factors in periodontal diseases.

Ebrahim Akbari, Ali Mashhadi, Zeinab Azimi, Raheleh Abbas Nazhad, Ahamd Amiri Pichakolaei,
Volume 30, Issue 4 (1-2018)

Background and Aims: While there are a lot of information about an illness risk factors, there are still some gaps in understanding factors influencing the progression of disease. Given the important role of psychological factors in physical conditions, the purpose of this study was to compare the cognitive emotion regulation, stress, depression, anxiety, and stress related to life events in people with and without periodontal disease.
Materials and Methods: The type of this study was causal comparative. Research society was all clients referred to dental clinics in Lamerd and Mehr cities, then 50 people with and 50 people without periodontal disease (male and female, 15-49 years old) were selected using purposive sampling. The group without periodontal disease was matched with patient group in terms of demographic characteristics. Both groups completed cognitive emotion regulation questionnaire (CERQ), Depression Anxiety Stress Scale (DASS), and life events questionnaire. Data analysis was conducted with SPSS version 17 using multivariate analysis of variance (MANOVA).
Resultes: Data analysis showed that people with periodontal disease had more stress, depression, anxiety, and stress related to life events than matched control group. The groups had significant differences in the components of self-blame, rumination, positive attention to evaluation and catastrophizing (P<0.05). People with periodontal disease had higher scores in self-blame, rumination and catastrophizing and lower scores in positive attention to evaluating compared with matched control group.
Conclusion: The results showed people who were vulnerable to stressfull situations, depression, and anxiety during their lives, and also use maladaptive emotion regulation strategies, were more susceptible to periodontal disease.

Sanaz Safari, Mahdia Gholami, Samaneh Razeghi,
Volume 31, Issue 2 (9-2018)

Background and Aims: Children’s Fear Survey Schedule- Dental Subscale (CFSS-DS) is considered as the most popular instrument available to assess dental fear in children. The aim of this study was to develop a Persian version of the CFSS-DS among 8-12 year-old female children resident in Tehran.
Materials and Methods: At first, the questionnaire was translated in Farsi and  back translated in English afterwards. While, the back translated version was confirmed, we considered the Persian version as the final instrument. Content validity and reliability of the questionnaire was assessed. We used test-retest method to evaluate the reliability, 287 female students aged 8 to 12 from 7 schools in 6th district of education ministry of Tehran were interviewed two times with interval of seven days. In addition, the infraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) and percentage of agreement were calculated. The score of dental fear was measured with range of 13 to 65 and changed to a number between 0 and 100. The relationship between dental fear score and the independent variables including age, history of hospitalization, last medical visit, and history of dental treatment were evaluated using the linear regression models.
Results: The mean score of dental fear was calculated 20.52. The score of dental fear was significantly associated with the last medical visit (P=0.04) and past dental history (P<0.001). The percentage of agreement was more than 80% for all the questions. In each question, Kappa was evaluated as moderate to good and ICC was good to very good (more than 0.4).
Conclusion: The findings of this study demonstrated that the Persian version of CFSS-DS was valid and reliable among 8-12 year-old children.

Majid Mehran, Roza Haghgoo, Mohsen Ashourioun, Elham Seifali, Nasrin Takzaree,
Volume 32, Issue 2 (10-2019)

Background and Aims: Most children get a lot of anxiety while they visit a dentist. The most important factor in the child's fear at the beginning of treatment is the syringe and needle. Ways to cope with this anxiety include behavioural control techniques such as mental regeneration, distraction, and induction. The purpose of this study was to compare the pain and anxiety in children when using a syringe and toy- shape syringe needle. This study was the first study that used a toy-shape needle cover.
Materials and Methods: This clinical trial study was conducted on 20 children age from 5 to 8 years. More than half of them were anxious with Cfss-Ds (Dental Subscale of the Children's Fear Survey Schedule) and FIS
(Facial Image Scale) anxiety diagnostic tests, and the rest of them were not anxious. Patients were randomly divided into two groups. The first group received local anesthesia with conventional syringe and the second group, by syringe with toy shape needle cover. Following, the first group received local anesthesia by syringe with toy shape needle cover, and the second group, by a conventional syringe. Heart rate measuring and pain evaluating test was performed. Analysis of heart rate and anxiety data was performed by non-parametric wilcoxonsianed Ranks T-test (P-value was considered significant at 0.001).
Results: The mean amount of pain measured after using a syringe with a toy shape needle cover and using conventional syringe had a significant difference of 5.20% between the two groups. The pain was reduced in children who received local anesthesia by syringe with toy shape needle cover (P<0.001).
Conclusion: The physical appearance of the injection device plays an important role in reducing the anxiety and pain of injection in the children.

Rahim Yousefi, Azra Mohammadpanah Ardakan, Nafiseh Binesh, Atefeh Saberi, Pegah Tabatabayi,
Volume 33, Issue 2 (8-2020)

Background and Aims: Anxiety is a common problem in patients referred to dental clinics that is associated with underlying personality factors. The purpose of this study was to determine the role of personality traits in predicting dental anxiety.
Materials and Methods: In this study, 211 patients (110 men and 101 women) referred to the dental clinics in Tabriz in 2019, were selected by available sampling method. The method of this study is descriptive- correlative. The research instrument was a short-form NEO-personality inventory and a dental anxiety inventory. Data were analyzed by correlation and regression analysis using SPSS22.
Results: The research findings showed that the average age of women and men was 30 and 31 years, respectively. 49% of the clients were single and 51% were married, and the education of most of the clients was undergraduate. Also, Regression analysis showed that dental anxiety had a positive correlation with personality trait of neuroticism (r=-0.49, P<0.01), and it had a negative relationship with extroversion (r=-0.19, P<0.05), agreeableness (r=-0.21, P<0.01), consciences (r=-0.35, P<0.01); and two factors of neuroticism (t=4.71, P<0.01) and conscience (t=2.44, P<0.01), and predicted dental anxiety (P<0.05).
Conclusion: From the results, it can be concluded that anxiety with a sense of danger that was observed in many people in the face of dental interventions, occurred within individuals. By recognizing root factors, it can be partly strengthened by deterrent and suppressor personality factors for anxiety, and thus, taking advantages of the dental services and preventing from avoiding dental treatments.

Yousef Ahmadpour, Simin Zara Mohebbi, Samaneh Razeghi,
Volume 33, Issue 3 (10-2020)

Background and Aims: Dental anxiety and fear can act as a barrier to seek dental care leading to insufficient oral health in people. The aim of this study was to determine the relations between dental fear and anxiety with dental caries status (DMFT) and clinical consequences of untreated dental caries (PUFA) among the adult patients referred to the faculty dental clinic of Tehran University of Medical Sciences.
Materials and Methods: In this cross-sectional study in 2019, the patients above 18 years old were assessed. Two standard questionnaires, Dental Fear Scale (DFS) and Modified Dental Anxiety Scale (MDAS), were used to assess the scores of dental fear, and dental anxiety, respectively. The demographic data of the patients were recorded. Dental caries status and clinical consequences of untreated dental caries, using DMFT and PUFA, respectively, were measured. Pearson correlation coefficients and multiple linear regression model (Backward method) were used for statistical analysis.
Results: Totally, 283 patients with the mean age of 38.6±11.8 years old participated. The mean scores of MDAS, and DFS were 12.04±4.49, and 41.33±16.87, respectively. Educational level (P=0.03, β=-0.14) and marital status (P=0.01, β=0.17) had significant relationships with MDAS scores. Moreover, a significant relationship was found between marital status and DFS scores (P<0.001, β=0.25). Significant correlations were found between dental anxiety level and D (P<0.001, r=0.36) and M components (P=0.02, r=0.14) of DMFT index. Moreover, there was a significant correlation between dental anxiety and U components of PUFA index (P=0.045, r=-0.12). Furthermore, the correlations between dental fear and D and M component of DMFT were significant (P<0.001, r=0.36; P<0.001, r=0.23; respectively).
Conclusion: Dental anxiety and dental fear were infrequent in the studied population; however, significant relationships were found between dental anxiety and dental fear with dental caries indices. Therefore, it was concluded that the more MDAS and DFS scores, the worse dental caries status.

Azin Shishesaz, Reza Yazdani,
Volume 33, Issue 4 (1-2021)

Background and Aims: Child’s oral health is believed to be related with maternal dental fear and anxiety. The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the relationship between the demographic status and maternal dental fear and anxiety and its effect on child’s dental caries.
Materials and Methods: This descriptive and analytical study conducted among 374 mothers which had attended to pediatric department of Tehran University of Medical Sciences for their child’s dental treatments in 2019 were evaluated in the present study. In addition to dental fear survey (DFS) and modified dental anxiety survey (MDAS) questionnaires, demographic information, age, marital status, family income, and educational level of the mother was recorded. Dental visit frequency and previous negative experience were also recorded. DMFT/dmft (decayed, missed, filled teeth) of the children was recorded according to WHO criteria. To assess the relationship between the variables, Pearson correlation and multiple linear regression were used using SPSS25 software.
Results: The mean age of the mothers was 35.66±15.75. There was no relationship between maternal dental fear and anxiety and children’s dental caries status (P=0.738). There was no relationship between the mothers’ age and dental fear, and anxiety (P=0.943). Previous negative experience and education were related to the dental fear and anxiety (P=0.02).
Conclusion: dmft of the children was not correlated with the maternal dental fear and anxiety. Higher education which was related with less dental fear and anxiety. Previous negative experience is one of the major factors influencing the maternal dental fear and anxiety.

Asie Eftekari, Maryam Bakhtiari, Amir Sam Kianimoghadam,
Volume 34, Issue 0 (5-2021)

Background and Aims: Studies have shown that dental anxiety may be caused by various factors such as child mood, age, maternal emotional maturity, previous dental anxiety and parenting styles. Therefore, the aim of this study was to investigate the possible relationship between the parenting styles and pediatric dental anxiety and the predictability of this variable through parenting styles.
Materials and Methods: The present study was a cross-sectional correlational study. The study population was children aged 7 to 12 years who had referred to the dental clinics of Tehran in 1400. Sampling from one of the clinics was done randomly. A total of 100 questionnaires of modified child dental anxiety scale and parenting style inventory were given to the children and their parents and 95 of them could have been analyzed. The questionnaires were analyzed using SPSS22 software and Pearson correlation and regression tests.
Results: The results showed that dental anxiety had a negative and significant relationship with authoritative parenting style (r=-0.286, P<0.01) and a positive and significant relationship with authoritarian parenting style (r=0.342, P<0.01). Authoritarian parenting style can be a predictor of dental anxiety.
Conclusion: Knowing the predictors of dental anxiety can help a pediatric dentist analysing who is most prone to dental anxiety. Based on this approach, a relationship based on trust can be established between the dentist and parents to make the necessary recommendations to parents in the office, reduce dental anxiety and improve oral health conditions in children.

Zohreh Dalirsani, Maryam Amirchaghmaghi, Mahshid Malakouti Semnani, Mahdi Talebi, Seyed Isaac Hashemi, Mohammad Taghi Shakeri,
Volume 35, Issue 0 (5-2022)

Background and Aims: Atypical facial pain (AFP) is a chronic disease associated with local pain in the craniofacial area. A wide range of treatments including drug therapy, psychiatric methods and open surgery are used for its treatment. Opiorphin is a pentapeptide that can block pain and also has proven antidepressant effects. The aim of this study was conducted to investigate the opiorphin concentration in AFP patients and to compare it with healthy people.
Materials and Methods: This study was performed on 30 AFP patients and 40 healthy individuals. Unstimulated saliva was collected from both groups by spitting method. HAD-A (Hamilton Anxiety Test) and HAD-D (Hamilton Depression Test) questionnaires were completed for all patients and controls. Psychological interview with the patients and psychological analysis were performed to determine anxiety and depression scores. Data analysis was done using SPSS (ver.24) statistical software
Results: The subjects of two groups were homogeneous in terms of age and sex. The mean salivary opiorphin concentrations in the case and control groups were 1.8050±0.2923 and 1.8032±0.3682 ng/ml, respectively. According to the results of t-Test, no significant difference was observed in the mean opiorphin concentration between the AFP group and control group (P=1.000). According to the Pearson's test, no significant relationship was found between the opiorphin levels and the age, sex, and anxiety or depression score in the patient and control groups (P>0.05). Also, there was no remarkable correlation between initial VAS, duration of pain and previous treatments with opiorphin levels in the AFP patients (P>0.05). No significant correlation was found between the opiorphin concentration and menopausal period in the case and control women (P>0.05).
Conclusion: The results showed that most AFP patients had some degree of anxiety and depression. However, salivary opiorphin concentration did not significantly increase in the AFP patients.

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