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Narjes Amiri Tehranizadeh, Nahid Asgarizadeh, Vajihe Kamel,
Volume 25, Issue 2 (4-2012)

Background and Aims: Improper feeding is one of the most important etiologic factors in early childhood caries (ECC). In some clinical trials, breast feeding (BF) is mentioned as a causing factor in ECC. Results in this topic are different or even controversial. It is vital that all general advices given out are consistent with general health education messages. The aim of this study was to conduct a systematic review on the relationship between breast feeding and early childhood caries. 

Materials and Methods: Articles, guidelines, related books, and specific databases such as SID, PubMed, Scirus, Elsevier, American Association of Pediatric Dentistry (AAPD), American Association of Pediatrics (AAP) and American Dental Association (ADA) were searched for related topics cited since 1990. Early childhood caries definition, breast feeding and other variables such as sample size, study location and study design were analyzed.

Results: According to data analysis, there was a lack of methodological consistency and inconsistent definitions of ECC and BF in the literature making it difficult to draw conclusions. Results about relationship between prolonged BF and ECC were inconclusive. There was a positive relationship between nocturnal BF and ECC. A history of BF did not have any effect on the caries incidence.

Conclusion: Because of the role of breast feeding in children's health, it is important to inform the parents about the possibility of dental caries due to nocturnal breast feeding.

Hossein Afshar, Ahmadreza Shamshiri, Vahid Pourtalebi Firozabadi, Zahra Bani Ameri,
Volume 25, Issue 4 (1-2013)

Background and Aims: Nursing Caries (NC) is a destructive form of caries because of incorrect nutritional habits in infants that affects deciduous teeth after eruption. Familiarity with the pattern of this type of caries and evaluation of its symmetrical or asymmetrical pattern is necessary for effective and scientific diagnosis and treatment. The aim was to assess the symmetrical or asymmetrical aspects of Nursing Caries in children between 3-5 years old.

Materials and Methods: In this cross-sectional study, 10 kindergartens were randomly selected by the Tehran Welfare Organization. 115 children with NC caries entered to study after examination. Written consents were obtained from the parents. The dmfs in upper primary incisors and upper and lower primary canines, as well as the first primary molars were assessed and the caries pattern in terms of symmetrical or asymmetrical aspects was evaluated. The data were analyzed by ANOVA, LSD, Chi-square and Fisher tests.

Results: In 53.9% of the children with NC, the anterior teeth were affected symmetrically, while 46.1% indicated an asymmetrical pattern. In general, 32.2% of the teeth were affected in a symmetrical pattern and 67.8% of them in an asymmetrical pattern. About the relationship between the breastfeeding from the right or left breast and the symmetrical pattern of the NC, 51% of the children were equally breastfed from both breasts. However, in the asymmetrical NC pattern with more impact in the right side of dentition, 50% of the children had been breastfed from the left side and in children with more caries  in the left side of dentition, 50% of them had been breastfed from the right side (P=0.01).

Conclusion: NC has symmetrical and asymmetrical patterns. Direction of mother for breastfeeding affects the symmetrical and asymmetrical pattern of NC.

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