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Showing 11 results for Child

H. Nowzari, Sandra. K Rich, N. Moslemi,
Volume 21, Issue 4 (1-2009)

Gingival overgrowth is a drug-associated side effect occurs in pediatric patients. Phenytoin, cyclosporine, calcium channel blockers, and amphetamine are primary drugs that can cause gingival enlargement in children. Pediatric patients are more prone to drug-associated gingival overgrowth rather than adults. Gingival overgrowth may cause functional, phonetic, and nutritional difficulties, and more importantly, may affect the psycho-social development, self-esteem, and quality of life in children. However, the researches about this issue are rare. This Part I paper provides an analysis of pediatric systemic disease and corresponding prescribed medications for selected physical and mental health conditions. This paper describes the morbidity and risk for children related to gingival overgrowth and proposes a framework for action that will be more completely described in a part II paper on this topic.

Parvin Khadem , Seied Ebrahim Jabarifar , Hajiahmadi Maryam , Sadeghain Susan Susan , Mohamad Safaie ,
Volume 26, Issue 3 (8-2013)

  Background and Aims: Oral health prepares us for daily activities without discomfort, and dissatisfaction. In this research, agreement level between parents and children aged 11-14 year-old in reporting child oral health-related quality of life was studied in Isfahan city.

  Materials and Methods: In this descriptive, analytical and cross-sectional study 128 pairs of parents and children aged 11-14 were selected with random sampling technique from schools in Isfahan and were asked to complete the relevant questionnaires. The questionnaires evaluated quality of life in four fields of oral signs, functional deficits and emotional and social health. In order to evaluate child-parent agreement, intra-correlation coefficient (ICC), Pearson’s correlation coefficient, Spearman’s correlation coefficient and intra-class correlation coefficient (ICC) were used (α=0.05).

  Results: The agreements between PPQ11-14 (parent perception questionnaire), CPQ11-14 (child perception questionnaire) and the related fields were 0.81, -0.67. The highest agreement level (ICC=0.83) was related to emotional health (excellent), followed by functional deficits (ICC=0.80), social health (ICC=0.69) and oral signs (ICC=0.64). Pearson's test showed significant correlations between CPQ11-14 and PPQ11-14 (r=0.81) (P<0.01).

  Conclusion: Although parents, especially mothers, may be used as proxies for their children in relation to quality of life and related fields, the views of both should be obtained in order to fully represent child oral health-related quality of life issues.

Motlagh Mehdi Ghandehari , Pourhashemi Seyyed Jalal , Ghadimi Sara , Baghae Farideh ,
Volume 27, Issue 4 (1-2015)

  Background and Aims: Dental environment is a stressful place for children. In many cases, parents transmit their anxiety to their children in the first dental visit. Mothers as the closest person to the children may have important influence on their children’s behavior in dentistry. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of an educational pamphlet for mothers on children’s behavior in the first dental visit.

  Materials and Methods: This study was conducted on 238 mothers who had 3-7 years old children undergoing dental treatment for the first time. The participants were divided into interventional and control group randomly. Behavior of children was assessed by questionnaire according to 4 point scale of Frankle. The questionnaire contained 5 parts: separation of child from the mother, entering the dental room, opening the mouth, communicating with dentist, getting the prize. Data were analyzed using Chi-square test.

  Results: The educational pamphlet was effective on the separation of child from the mother, the cooperation of children in interventional group was better than the control group (P=0.006). In interventional group 96.2% of and in the control group 90.8% of children had good and very good behavior but the difference was not significant (P=0.11).

  Conclusion: Although the educational pamphlet was effective on the separation of child from mother. No significant difference in behavior of 3-7 year-old children between interventional and control group was found.

Samaneh Razeghi, Mahdia Gholami, Simin Zahra Mohebbi, Mahgol Mashayekhi,
Volume 30, Issue 1 (6-2017)

Background and Aims: Trauma to the permanent and deciduous incisors is an undesirable common event in childhood. Proper immediate management of injured teeth is depended on the knowledge of unprofessional people, including teachers, who are usually present at the scene prior to dental treatment. The aim of this study was to assess the knowledge and self-reported practice of primary school teachers on the emergency management of traumatic dental injuries (TDIs) in Arak.

Materials and Methods: In this cross-sectional study, 624 primary school teachers were enrolled in census in Arak. An anonymous questionnaire containing demographic data, the history of previous exposure to traumatic dental injuries, teachers’ knowledge regarding emergency management of TDIs and their practice towards TDIs was used. Questionnaires were distributed among all participants and then were collected on the same day. Descriptive statistics and linear regression were performed to analyze the data.

Results: A total of 292 completed questionnaires (response rate 46.8%) were collected. The mean score of knowledge was 2.65±1.69 out of 10. The mean score of self-reported practice was 3.46±2.04 out of 8. Regarding the demographic variables, knowledge had a significant relationship with the education (P<0.001). No significant relationships were observed between the self-reported practice and demographic variables. The correlation coefficients between the knowledge scores and the practice scores of teachers was 0.2.

Conclusion: This study revealed that insufficient knowledge exists among primary school teachers on emergency management of TDIs. Furthermore, a high percentage of respondents enjoy a significant deficiency regarding favorable practice encountering TDIs.

Sanaz Safari, Mahdia Gholami, Samaneh Razeghi,
Volume 31, Issue 2 (9-2018)

Background and Aims: Children’s Fear Survey Schedule- Dental Subscale (CFSS-DS) is considered as the most popular instrument available to assess dental fear in children. The aim of this study was to develop a Persian version of the CFSS-DS among 8-12 year-old female children resident in Tehran.
Materials and Methods: At first, the questionnaire was translated in Farsi and  back translated in English afterwards. While, the back translated version was confirmed, we considered the Persian version as the final instrument. Content validity and reliability of the questionnaire was assessed. We used test-retest method to evaluate the reliability, 287 female students aged 8 to 12 from 7 schools in 6th district of education ministry of Tehran were interviewed two times with interval of seven days. In addition, the infraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) and percentage of agreement were calculated. The score of dental fear was measured with range of 13 to 65 and changed to a number between 0 and 100. The relationship between dental fear score and the independent variables including age, history of hospitalization, last medical visit, and history of dental treatment were evaluated using the linear regression models.
Results: The mean score of dental fear was calculated 20.52. The score of dental fear was significantly associated with the last medical visit (P=0.04) and past dental history (P<0.001). The percentage of agreement was more than 80% for all the questions. In each question, Kappa was evaluated as moderate to good and ICC was good to very good (more than 0.4).
Conclusion: The findings of this study demonstrated that the Persian version of CFSS-DS was valid and reliable among 8-12 year-old children.

Somayyeh Sheikhi, Hajar Shekarchizadeh, Zahra Saied-Moallemi,
Volume 31, Issue 3 (11-2018)

Background and Aims: Caregivers’ oral health literacy (OHL) can be effective in increasing their children’s knowledge, and can improve their oral health-related behaviors. This study aimed to investigate the relationship between mothers’ OHL and children’s oral health status.
Materials and Methods: We conducted a cross-sectional study on 202 6-year child/mother dyads in Semirom, Iran, applying a cluster sampling method. Self-administered questionnaires (Oral Health Literacy-Adult Questionnaire) requested information about mothers’ OHL. Children’s oral health status (dmft and pufa) was recorded via clinical examination. Pearson correlation coefficient, spearman correlation coefficient, independent T-test, and a linear regression model were used for statistical analysis.
Results: Among 202 pre-school children, 99 were girls (49%). The mean OHL score of mothers was 63.2 (Max achievable score=100, SD=18.9). Higher score of OHL among mothers was associated with their children’s less missing teeth (mt) and more filled teeth (ft) (P<0.05). No significant the association existed between the mothers OHL and their children’s dt, dmft, and pufa. Childrens of younger mothers, more educated mothers, and those with better oral health behaviors in terms of daily flossing and tooth brushing, showed lower scores of dmft and pufa (P<0.05).
Conclusion: A significant association revealed between mothers’ OHL and the oral health status of their children. Thus, it is recommended to increase mothers’ OHL to improve their children’s oral health status.

Nasim Seyfi, Milad Nodehghan,
Volume 31, Issue 4 (1-2019)

Background and Aims: Tooth decay is still one of the most prevalent pediatric diseases. According to the role of general dentists and importance of first dental visit in prevention, the aim of this study was to evaluate dentist’s knowledge and attitude regarding children’s first dental visit in Gorgan, Iran.
Materials and Methods: In this cross-sectional study, 140 general practitioners participated. In order to assess the level of knowledge, a questionnaire including 2 parts was used as the main tool. Data were analyzed using Mann-Whitney, Kruskal-Wallis and Pearson correlation coefficient.
Results: Our findings revealed that the level of knowledge in both sex was equal (P=0.067). There was no significant relationship between the workplace (P=0.68), age (P=0.77), work experience (P=0.84) and the level of knowledge. Interest of practitioners to get the necessary training about examination and treatment of 0-2 year-old children was medium. 51.17% of dentists, admitted the treatment of 8-12 year-old children. 34.5% of dentists revealed that misbehavior of children during treatment was the main reason for unwillingness to accept treating them. 46.9% of dentists, revealed that the most effective result of child’s dental visit at an early age is increasing parents’ knowledge about prevention of carries in primary dentition.
Conclusion: The results showed that general dental practitioners in this study had a good level of knowledge about the first dental visit. Regarding to their little tendency to treat children, it seems necessary to hold workshops and seminars for better desired motivation in this field.

Shirin Taravati, Parnia Mahootchi,
Volume 32, Issue 4 (1-2020)

Background and Aims: Considering the role of primary teeth in children's dental health and the importance of parental role on children dental health the purpose of this study was to determine the knowledge and practice of parents of 3-9 year-old children regarding to maintaining primary teeth.
Materials and Methods: This cross-sectional descriptive-analytical study was conducted on the parents referring to Ahwaz dental school in 2017. Using a questionnaire, the participants' demographic characteristics, knowledge and performance regarding maintaining of the primary molars were collected. The percentage of correct responses was considered as the level of knowledge and performance. Analysis of K-square and Spearman and Pearson correlation coefficient and T-test were employed to determine the relationship between the participants' knowledge and performance and their demographic variables. The significance level was P<0.05.
Results: 176 parents completed the questionnaire. The mean parental knowledge score was 57.42±7.45
(range 15-75), and the mean practice score was, 9.42±1.86 (range 4-12). No relationship was found between the parents’ age, sex, knowledge, and performance. The knowledge of parents who had a history of referral to the dentist, fewer children (rs=0.428), higher education (rs=0.490) and higher income (r=0.226) was significantly better (P<0.001). Also practice increases with higher awareness of parents (r=0.549) (P<0.001). The parents’ practice was significantly related to the history of referral to the dentist, and having fewer children (rs=0.320), higher education (rs=0.369), and higher income (r=0.253) (P<0.01).
Conclusion: The findings of this study showed that the knowledge and practice of the parents about primary teeth were moderate. Regarding the important role of primary teeth in children's health, increasing the parents’ knowledge on the maintenance of primary teeth is essential.

Firoozeh Nilchian, Shiva Mortazavi, Maryam Kashani,
Volume 33, Issue 2 (8-2020)

Background and Aims: Dental caries is a common childhood disease with a considerable effect on quality of life. In visually imparted children oral health and dental treatments are more complicated. To prevent oral diseases, it is necessary to educate visually impaired children. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of oral hygiene training on oral health status in visually impaired children.
Materials and Methods: In this semi experimental study, 50 visually impaired children 8 to 12 years old were systematically recruited from visually impaired exceptional schools. Participants were randomly allocated into two control and study groups (25 each). Sillness and Loe plaque index was recorded in all 50 children at baseline and after intervention and follow up periods. The study group received oral hygiene instructions (rolling toothbrush technique) using Braille booklets and hand over hand education. The training repeated three times with two weeks’ intervals and at the end Plaque Index was measured in both groups ANOVA, T-test and Mann Whitney tests were employed to compare intra and inter groups statistical analyses. (α=0.05).
Results: At the baseline, the mean plaque index score in the study group was 2.03±0.52 which decreased to 1.23±0.34 at the end of the intervention (P<0.001). Initially, in control group, the Plaque Index score was 2.26±0.49 which was 2.19±0.44 at the end of the study. Changes in Plaque Index scores were statistically significant between two groups. (P<0.001).
Conclusion: It was concluded that oral hygiene instructions using visually impaired specific training methods improved Plaque Index in these children.

Shirin Taravati, Zahra Abbasihormozi,
Volume 35, Issue 0 (5-2022)

Background and Aims: Dental caries affects the quality of life of children and parents, oral health and overall health which can interfere with the childrens’ daily activities and growth. The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between the severity of dental caries and quality of life in pre-school children.
Materials and Methods: This cross-sectional descriptive study was conducted on 145 parents and preschool children aged 2-5 years old referring to Ahvaz dental school and a pediatric dentistry office in Ahvaz city. The convenient sampling method was used and participants were patients referred to the faculty of dentistry and one pediatric dentistry office in Ahvaz. Early Childhood Oral Health Impact Scale (ECOHIS) questionnaire was used to evaluate the oral health related quality of life. The demographic information and dmft index (decayed, missing, and filled teeth) was assessed for children. Statistical analyzes included descriptive statistics, Spearman and Pearson tests.
Results: The mean age of children was 4.12 ± 1.2 years. 72 children (49.65%) were boys and 73 of children (50.34%) were girls. Based on our results the mean ECOHIS score was 39.69 ± 18.95. There was a significant correlation between decreased quality of life and the lower age of the children (P=0.047), less parental education (P=0.018), more dmft score (P=0.000).
Conclusion: It can be concluded that severity of dental caries is effective on children's quality of life. The quality of life of children decreases with the increase in the dmft, lower socio-economic status of parents, and higher age of parents.

Firoozeh Nilchian, Ehsan Ghasemi,
Volume 35, Issue 0 (5-2022)

Background and Aims: There is a traditional belief that the primary teeth can be replaced by permanent teeth and preserving them is not important. The aim of this study was to evaluate the knowledge and attitude of parents of preschool and elementary school children referring to the Specialty Clinic of Isfahan University of Medical Sciences and Imam Hossein pediatric hospital about the importance of preserving deciduous teeth and related factors.
Materials and Methods: This descriptive cross-sectional study was performed on 323 parents of preschool and elementary school children referred to the special clinic of Isfahan University of Medical Sciences and Imam Hossein Pediatric hospital. The data collection method was a questionnaire and face-to-face interview. The questionnaire was made, it consisted of 21 multiple-choice questions and descriptive questions. Data were analyzed using descriptive statistics tests and analytical tests such as t-test and Pearson correlation coefficient.
Results: The mean score of knowledge of parents was 37.5 with a standard deviation of 16.9, the mean score of attitude was 55.8 with a standard deviation of 11.1 and the mean score of performance was 41.8 with a standard deviation of 15.6 out of 100. Pearson correlation coefficient showed that there was a direct relationship between knowledge, attitude, and performance scores (P<0.001). Parents' knowledge score was directly related to the mothers' and fathers' ages (P<0.001).
Conclusion: According to the results, parents' awareness of the importance of the preservation of deciduous teeth and related factors is poor, their attitudes are neutral and their performance is poor to moderate. It is suggested to improve treatment facilities available for children in the family and to educate parents about the preservation of deciduous teeth.

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