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Showing 6 results for Chlorhexidine

J. Koiahi-E-Kazerani , P. Ghalyani Isfahani , J. Varshosaz ,
Volume 16, Issue 2 (5-2003)

Chlorhexidine is bonded well to the oral mucosa and dental pellicle and is poorly absorbed from the astrointestinal tract, but in high concentration it is absorbed enough to produce liver necrosis. In this case a dentistry student accidentally ingested a shot of 20% chlorhexidine gluconate solution. Treatments included washing the oral cavity with lots of tooth paste, drinking of 5% alginate syrup and ingestion of 5g small pieces of cork .The following adverse effects were experienced: headache, giddiness, mild mist, euphoria, stomachache, diarrhea and complete loss of taste sensation for 8h, which recurred gradually during the last 48 hours. According to the poor absorption, low toxicity and low concentration of conventional mouthwashes, systemic toxicity following drinking of some shots of this solution is rare. Ultimately if may cause gastritis. Other treatments which are helpful in the same cases are: drinking of hard water, kaolin and tragacant syrup, bicarbonates such as baking soda, carbonates such as beverage , citrates such as lemon-juice and chlorides such as brine and so on.
G. Kolahi Kazerani , P. Ghalyani , J . Varshosaz ,
Volume 16, Issue 3 (5-2003)

Statement of Problem: The role of the microbial plaque in caries etiology and periodontal diseases has been proved and the mechanical methods for plaque control have special limitations, consequently, chemical methods have been suggested. One of the most effective materials is Chlorhexidine Gluconate that is commonly used as mouth rinses. However, the medicated formulations of chewing gums, due to several properties, have been paid attention. It should be noted that a new formulation to satisfy the consumers' taste seems necessary.
Purpose: The aim of this study was to present a new formulation for chewing gums containing chlorhexidine to achieve a pleasant taste coupled with their effectiveness and anti-plaque properties maintenance.
Materials and Methods: In this double blind, crossover, prospective clinical trial, 18 volunteers were investigated. Chlorhexidine Gluconate was used and added to the gum-base by Manitole. In order to cover the bitter taste of the drug Aspartam, mint essence and Mentole were used. After gums production, the profile of drug dissolution was evaluated by jaw movement simulating system. It took 5 days to study each type of chewing gums without any mechanical plaque control method. Medicated and placebo chewing gums were identical in shape, size, color and formulation. The washout period was 2 days. Chewing gums were used every 12 hours for 20 minutes. To determine plaque score, Turesky- Gilmore- Glickman modification index was used. Other variables including: subjective evaluation of taste, cleansing effect and taste disturbance were assessed through filling a checklist. The data were analyzed by Paired t test and Wilcoxon test.
Results: During 20 mins, 80% of the drug was released from the gum-base. The mean difference of plaque score between the initial and final stages at the first trial was -0.1589 and at the second trial was 2.994 which was statistically significant (P<0.001). Subjective evaluation of cleansing effect showed statistically significant differences between the placebo and medicated chewing gum (PO.00I). There was no statistical significant difference between the subjective evaluations of taste (P-0.157). No taste disturbances were reported.
Conclusion: In this investigation, the researchers could for the first time introduce new formulation for chlorhexidine medicated chewing gums with efficacy and anti-plaque effects coupled with an acceptable taste for public usage.
Z. Ataei , H. Abdollahi , M. Salarzadeh ,
Volume 18, Issue 4 (1-2006)

Background and Aim: Chlorhexidine is a mouthwash with known antibacterial effect but its antifungal effect is not clear. The aim of this study was to compare the antimicrobial effects of nystatin and chlorhexidine mouthwashes (one Iranian product and the other, commercial) on Candida albicans under in vitro condition. Materials and Methods: In this experimental study, the strains of Candida albicans used consisted of one standard strain (PTCC 5027) and ten local isolates. The latter were obtained from patients referred to different dental clinics in Kerman city. The specimens were taken from the gum and palate area by sterile swabs and dipped into Stewards transport medium, transferred to the laboratory within one hour, and cultured on Sabauraud dextrose Agar. Colonies showing the characteristic appearance of Candida were further cultured and routine differential tests including germ tube formation were performed to confirm the diagnosis of

C.albicans. These were used to prepare a microbial cell suspension of 0.5 Mc Farland concentration. Each cell suspension was inoculated over duplicate plates of SDA and 4 wells of 5 mm diameter were made using sterile cork borers. Each previously coded mouthwash was placed in corresponding well and incubated for 24-48 hours and the diameter of inhibition zone was measured with ruler. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of each mouthwash for each isolate of Candida albicans was determined using dilution tube technique. Data were analyzed by SPSS package using proper statistical tests with P<0.05 as the limit of significance.

Results: There was a significant difference between the antimicrobial effects of the four tested mouthwashes. The results indicated that Iranian nystatin mouthwash had the greatest effect and the average inhibition zone from the highest to the lowest was associated with Iranian nystatin, foreign nystatin, Iranian chlorhexidine and foreign chlorhexidine respectively. The MIC determination revealed that generally nystatin was more effective than chlorhexidine. No statistical difference was seen between the Iranian and foreign samples.

Conclusions: Despite the antifungal effects of chlorhexidine, more investigations on different strains of C.albicans is required before recommending its cilinical application.

Fatemeh Mokhtari, Amir Hossein Mansor Abadi, Ali Gharaati Jahromi, Ehsan Anvar, Zandi Hengame, Tabrizi Zade Mehdi, Taghavi Mayam,
Volume 28, Issue 3 (10-2015)

Background and Aims: Bacteria and their products have a major role in pulp and periapical diseases. The purpose of this study was to compare the antimicrobial activity of sodium hypochlorite, iodide potassium iodide and chlorhexidine on the enterococcus faecalis after root canal filling.

Materials and Methods: In this experimental study, 95 single canal human teeth were collected. Then after washing and cleaning and filing, the sterilization done using an autoclave. The teeth were smeared with enterococcus faecalis except five which selected as controls and then divided them into 3 groups which A randomly represented the irrigation by sodium hypochlorite, iodide potassium iodide (IKI) and chlorhexidine solution were done. The teeth were filled with gutta-percha and then incubated in a incubator for 90 days at a temperature of 37° C. The specimens were analyzed for Colony Count. Data were analyzed using Kruskal-Wallis test and Chi-Square.

Results: According to the results of this study, the correlation between the 3 groups of cultured teeth were not significant (P=0.812).The specimens which were washed by IKI had the most positive amount of cultures (23.3%) and the specimens which washed by chlorhexidine had the lowest (16.7%).

Conclusion: The results of this study showed that after the use of different wash solutions, no statistically significant difference exist in their antimicrobial activity after root canal therapy.

Shamsolmoulouk Najafi, Reza Yazdani, Behzad Salari, Homa Forouhesh Tehrani, Mohammad Javad Kharrazi Fard,
Volume 29, Issue 2 (11-2016)

Background and Aims: The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of sodium bicarbonate against candida albicans, the main infectious factor of denture stomatitis, and to compare it with other common anti-candida medications.

Materials and Methods: Three concentrations of Candida albicans (105, 106, 107 CFU/mL) were prepared. Experimental substances were 5% sodium bicarbonate, nystatin, chlorhexidine, and sterile saline (as control). Each of them was added separately to the same amounts of Candida albicans of different concentrations, and sampled at the intervals of 1, 2, 3 and 4 min. Then, the samples were cultured and incubated. The number of formed colonies was counted for each plate. The data were analyzed, using ANOVA and Tukey test.

Results: Sodium bicarbonate showed a noticeable anti-candida effect on the concentrations of 105 and 106 CFU/mL, with almost similar anti-candida effect as nystatin and chlorehexidine(P=0.29, P=0.32). Nystatin was the most effective medication on the concentration of 107 CFU/mL of candida (P=0.03, P=0.01). Sodium bicarbonate and chlorhexidine were less effective in this concentration with no statistically significant difference (P=1.00).

Conclusion: Sodium bicarbonate showed a significant anti-candida effect at low and medium concentrations of Candida albicans, but nystatin was more effective in the higher concentrations.

Faramarz Mojtahedzade, Neda Moslemi, Ahmad Sodagar, Gita Kiaee, Bita ,
Volume 30, Issue 1 (6-2017)

Background and Aims: There is an increased risk of periodontal diseases in patients undergoing fixed orthodontic treatment. Chlorhexidine (CHX) is frequently used to promote oral hygiene; however, it is associated with several complications. Herbal mouthwashes can be used as the substitute without having similar complications. The aim the present study was to compare the effects of herbal mouthwashes (Matrica and Persica) with CHX 0.2% on the periodontal parameters of patients under fixed orthodontic treatment.

Materials and Methods: In a double-blind randomized clinical trial, 84 patients under fix orthodontic treatment were selected. After receiving oral hygiene instruction, the patients were randomly assigned to four groups (group 1: Matrica, group 2: Persica, group 3: CHX 0.02%, group 4: normal saline). Dental plaque scores (PI), gingival inflammation (GI) and papillary bleeding (PBI) indices were measured at the beginning, 1 week after receiving oral hygiene instructions and 30 days after mouthwash consumption. The scores of the periodontal indices were statistically analyzed by Kruskal Wallis, ANOVA the paired Mann-whitney U test and Tukey test.

Results: All of the indices were significantly reduced in study groups (except for the control). Matrica and Persica mouthwashes were similarly effective in improving the periodontal parameters. Their efficacy in decreasing the PBI scores was significantly higher than CHX 0.2% (P<0.01).

Conclusion: Application of the two herbal mouthwashes was effective in improving the periodontal parameters in patients undergoing fixed orthodontic treatment.

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