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Showing 18 results for Dental Caries

M. Ghavam ,
Volume 14, Issue 2 (8-2001)

Oral cancers account for a relatively high percent of neoplasms in the elderly population. Treatment protocols often include anti-neoplastic pharmaco-therapeutics, irradiation of the head and neck region, and surgery. These treatments, specially radiation, have detrimental effects on oral hard and soft tissues. Salivary glands undergo a distinct and longterm dysfunction, which leads to decrease in salivary How. Xerostomia is a common clinical problem in these patients which contributes to dry mouth, mucosites, change in oral ecosystem and dental caries, followed by difficulties in speech, swallowing and use of dentures which cause malnutrition. This phenomenon has an irreversible weakening effect on the patient's health. To prevent this negative impact on oral health in this group of patients, definitive dental treatments prior to the initiation of medical therapies is imperative, and will decrease the morbidity rates. Today's dentistry benefits from improved methods and materials, which enable us to give these patients a better preventive dental treatment. Consultation between dentist and medical team would be the best way to help our sufferer patients.
D. Goodarzi Pour, S. Nejati, A. Fotouhi,
Volume 24, Issue 1 (3-2011)

Background and Aims: Conventional radiological equipments in our country are going to be converted to digital system using computed radiology (CR) technology. If we know the accuracy of digital panoramic radiography for detection of small defects in tooth, it will be useful in cases with difficulty for taking the intraoral radiographs. The aim of this study was to evaluate sensitivity and specificity of digital panoramic radiography for detection of proximal caries compared with the bitewing radiography.
Materials and Methods: One-hundred patients who had been ordered for taking both bitewing and panoramic radiography were included in this study. Panoramic and then bitewing radiographs were observed by a maxillofacial radiologist and interproximal caries were recorded. Sensitivity and specificity of digital panoramic radiography (CI=95%) was calculated compared with the bitewing radiography as a gold standard.
Results: This study showed that the values for sensitivity and specificity were 62.7% (CI 95%=57.7%-67.5%) and 91.0% (CI 95%=89.2%-92.5%), respectively.
Conclusion: Sensitivity of digital panoramic is less than bitewing radiography even with processing before printing. Therefore, bitewing radiography is superior for detection of inter proximal caries.

Hossein Afshar, Ahmadreza Shamshiri, Vahid Pourtalebi Firozabadi, Zahra Bani Ameri,
Volume 25, Issue 4 (1-2013)

Background and Aims: Nursing Caries (NC) is a destructive form of caries because of incorrect nutritional habits in infants that affects deciduous teeth after eruption. Familiarity with the pattern of this type of caries and evaluation of its symmetrical or asymmetrical pattern is necessary for effective and scientific diagnosis and treatment. The aim was to assess the symmetrical or asymmetrical aspects of Nursing Caries in children between 3-5 years old.

Materials and Methods: In this cross-sectional study, 10 kindergartens were randomly selected by the Tehran Welfare Organization. 115 children with NC caries entered to study after examination. Written consents were obtained from the parents. The dmfs in upper primary incisors and upper and lower primary canines, as well as the first primary molars were assessed and the caries pattern in terms of symmetrical or asymmetrical aspects was evaluated. The data were analyzed by ANOVA, LSD, Chi-square and Fisher tests.

Results: In 53.9% of the children with NC, the anterior teeth were affected symmetrically, while 46.1% indicated an asymmetrical pattern. In general, 32.2% of the teeth were affected in a symmetrical pattern and 67.8% of them in an asymmetrical pattern. About the relationship between the breastfeeding from the right or left breast and the symmetrical pattern of the NC, 51% of the children were equally breastfed from both breasts. However, in the asymmetrical NC pattern with more impact in the right side of dentition, 50% of the children had been breastfed from the left side and in children with more caries  in the left side of dentition, 50% of them had been breastfed from the right side (P=0.01).

Conclusion: NC has symmetrical and asymmetrical patterns. Direction of mother for breastfeeding affects the symmetrical and asymmetrical pattern of NC.

Mahsa Mansouri , Khoroushi Maryam ,
Volume 26, Issue 3 (8-2013)

  U ntreated caries are common findings in low-income communities. Treatment of dental caries in young children is challenging and requires a high skill and high cost of dental anesthesia for control ling patients and thus, chemical methods for arresting dental caries have been proposed. Silver Diamine Fluoride (SDF) is a material that is used to control and to arrest dental caries , especially in primary teeth . It is noninvasive, safe , easy to use , and cost-effective. The SDF can be used as a therapeutic agent in oral health projects in low-income communities . In this article we review ed the silver diamine fluoride and its application in dentistry.

Sara Ghadimi, Mohammad Reza Khami, Samaneh Razeghi,
Volume 28, Issue 1 (5-2015)

Background and Aims: Despite significant decline in dental caries in recent decades, the disease remains a public health problem especially in developing countries. In recent years combined application of laser and fluoride has been introduced as a new caries-preventive measure. The purpose of the present study was to review the literature on the preventive effect of combined application of laser and fluoride on the dental caries. Materials and Methods: PubMed, Google Scholar and EMBASE databases were searched for articles published from 1990 to November 30, 2013. Various combinations of the following keywords were used: Dental caries, Laser, Fluoride, Fluoride therapy, Prevention and Enamel. The inclusion criteria included all levels of available evidence. Articles published only in english language were evaluated, and unpublished data were not sought. Results: Several studies evaluating the effect of laser alone or combined with topical fluoride to prevent dental enamel demineralization were found. Studies assessing the combined effect were more frequently done on permanent teeth and just a few studies were done on primary teeth. In total, most of the studies confirmed that combined application of laser and topical fluoride has a remarkable effect in prevention of enamel demineralization compared to application of each of them alone. Conclusion: Laser irradiation combined with topical fluoride application seems to provide the best prevention effect on the dental caries initiation and progression in enamel of permanent teeth. However, more experimental and clinical studies are necessary to be done on the primary teeth in this area.
Rabbani Khorasgani Mohammad , Aliasghari Azam , Maryam Khoroushi,
Volume 28, Issue 2 (7-2015)

  Dental caries is a multi-factorial disease and the most common human infection that annually are spent millions dollars to control and treat it. Several methods have been proposed so far to control it. The most important control methods it is now include : dental hygiene, proper nutrition , fluoride therapy , the use of non- cariogenic sweeteners . Also, the use of probiotics , nanomaterials , bacteriophages , antimicrobial peptides and anti- caries vaccines can be considered as new perspective of human in the dental caries control field. In addition, the use of complementary and alternative therapies , especially herbal drug therapy recently has been considered . Demonstrating the efficacy of complementary medicine against dental caries and its use in combination with conventional medicine or trial of new methods for decline of dental caries in the future would be hopeful.

Rezvan Rafatjou, Zahra Razavi, Maryam Khalili, Maryam Farhadian,
Volume 29, Issue 2 (11-2016)

Background and Aims: Type 1 diabetes mellitus, is the most common metabolic disorders in children and adolescents. The aim of this study was to assess the state of oral health in children with type 1 diabetes compared with healthy children in 2013-2014 in Hamadan province, Iran.

Materials and Methods: The specimens were selected through convenience sampling in two groups. Group one consisted of 80 individuals (5-18 years old; case group), suffering from type 1 diabetes mellitus referred to the Pediatric endocrine clinic. Control group consisted of 80 non-diabetic healthy children who were out- patients of pediatric and orthodontic department of Hamadan dental school. Two groups were similar in age and sex. The data were collected through a questionnaire, medical records and clinical examination. DMFT, dmft, GI and PI indices were assessed in each patient. Data were analyzed using ANOVA and T-test.

Results: In spite of similarity in oral hygiene habits in both group, there was no significant difference in mean DMFT and permanent decayed teeth in both groups (P>0.05), but the mean dmft (P<0.008) and primary decayed teeth (P<0.011) in the control group was significantly higher than that of the case group. Also, diabetic patients had significantly more gingival inflammation (P<0.05). The mean PI in the two groups did not differ significantly. Oral hygiene habits were similar in both groups but diabetic patients were significantly referred to dentists with lower frequency then that of control group (P=0.00).

Conclusion: The devastating effects of diabetes on the oral health, along with other side effects can be effective in promoting tooth decay and gingivitis in diabetic patients. Unfortunately, oral health care and programmed dental visit were not the priority for the diabetic patient (and parents) involved in our study. Therefore, programs to increase awareness and encourage patients for a better control of their oral health in order to diminish diabetes' devastating effects is recommended.

Hossein Hessari, Mona Hamedani Golshan,
Volume 29, Issue 3 (10-2016)

Background and Aims: This study aimed to assess the severity of tooth decay and related factors in children 5-7 years old, in 2016, in Tehran.

Materials and Methods: A descriptive and cross-sectional study was performed on 572 children aged 5-7 years old (300 girls and 272 boys) in public schools in Tehran, Iran. Severity of dental caries (number of decayed, missing, filled surfaces) recorded for C, D and E teeth according to WHO criteria. Data analysis was performed by Backward Linear Regression Analyses using SPSS 20 (P≤0.05).

Results: Assessment of dental caries severity according to the number of decayed surfaces showed generally higher figures in upper jaw. The order of average severity of carious teeth was C, E and D from low to high in both jaws. According to the results of Linear Regression Analysis, severity of dental caries was more than other children in boys (OR=1.83, 95%CI: 0.81-2.8), those visited dentist due to dental problems associated with pain (OR=1.17, 95%CI: 0.73-1.6), and those without fluoride therapy (OR=1.64, 95%CI: 0.58-2.6) in C, D and E teeth.

Conclusion: Flow the results, it was concluded that gender, level of mother's education, type of snack consumption, start age of tooth brushing, reason for dental visit and fluoride therapy affected severity of tooth decay.

Fateme Ramezanalizadeh, Azam Aliasghari, Mohammad Rabbani Khorasgani, Maryam Khoroushi, Arezoo Tahmourethpour, Ahmad Reza Jabbari,
Volume 29, Issue 4 (1-2017)

Background and Aims: Dental caries is the most common infectious diseases. Among the oral bacteria, Streptococcus mutans and Streptococcus sobrinus are considered as the main causes of tooth decay. The aim of this study was to evaluate the production of hyperimmune bovine colostrum containing specific antibodies against cariogenic bacteria and its antimicrobial effects on the growth and adhesion of Streptococcus mutans and Streptococcus sobrinus in the laboratory.

Materials and Methods: In this experimental study, three pregnant bovine immunized with killed antigens of strains of Streptococcus mutans, Streptococcus mutans with Streptococcus Sobrinus and Streptococcus sobrinus through intramuscular injections. After delivery, The colostrum samples were collected, and the changes of anti-streptococci antibodies titers in colostrum and serum were determined by agglutination. Also,their antimicrobial effects against the growth and adhesion of oral streptococci were surveyed by the microtiter plate method. Data were analysed by One-Wey ANOVA in SPSS software.

Results: The results showed that in hyperimmunized bovine , the antibodies titers against injected bacteria were from 1.1000 to 1.3000 in sera samples and from 1.320 to 1.1280 in whey of colostrum samples. Colostrum of hyperimmune cows reduced the attachment of Streptococcus mutans and Streptococcus Sobrinus about 69 and 43 percents, respectively and also, the low dilutions of it reduced bacterial growth.

Conclusion:  According to the antibacterial effect immune colostrum on two strains of cariogenic bacteria in vitro, It appears that this material could be useful in the prevention and control of dental caries.

Maryam Khoroushi, Mohammad Rabbani Khorasgani, Azam Aliasghari,
Volume 30, Issue 1 (6-2017)

Background and Aims: Tooth decay has high prevalence in the world. The use of plant material for the prevention and treatment of this disease for various reasons is considered, due to the increasing resistance of bacteria to antibiotics, the high cost and adverse effects of some chemicals used in dentistry. This study was aimed to determine the antimicrobial effect of alcoholic extract of Pepper (Capsicum annuum) and eggplant skin and cap on the cariogenic streptococci.

Materials and Methods: In this study, the antimicrobial activity of ethanol extract of Capsicum annuum and eggplant skin and cap on the cariogenic streptococci, including Streptococcus mutans, Streptococcus sobrinus, and Streptococcus sanguis by microtitre plate method for MIC (Minimum Inhibitor Concentration) was performed. Data were analyzed by one-way analysis of variance using Prism 5 Graph Pad software.

Results: MIC for the Capsicum annuum and eggplant skin for Streptococcus mutans was 250 mg/ml (SD=0.052), and for the Streptococcus sobrinus and Streptococcus sanguis was 125 mg/ml (SD=0.027). The MIC for the cap eggplant for Streptococcus mutans and Streptococcus sobrinus was 500 mg/ml (SD=0) and for S. sanguis was getting 125 mg/ml (SD=0.159).

Conclusion: This study showed that the herbal extracts of Capsicum annuum and eggplant skin and cap had beneficially antimicrobial effects on all three strains of cariogenic streptococci.

Elham Zajkani, Habib Zeighami, Alireza Zaeefjou,
Volume 30, Issue 1 (6-2017)

Background and Aims: Dental caries is an infectious disease transmitted by multiple factors in the mouth and one of the most common chronic diseases in the world that requires a lot of treatment expenses. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of fluoride 0.2% and Fuchs mouthwash (a combination of xylitol and fluoride 920 ppm) against two bacterial growths (Streptococcus mutans and Lactobacillus acidophilus).

Materials and Methods: In this in vitro study, first the well diffusion method and then MIC method (minimum inhibitory concentration) were used. Data were analyzed with Excell (2016).

Results: The results of the MIC method showed inhibitory effect of both mouthwashes in pure concentration (128 μg/ml). However, fluoride was effective in concentration higher than 32 μg/ml for Streptococcus mutans and higher than 2 μg/ml for lactobacillus acidophilus. Fuchs was effective for both bacteria at concentration higher than 64 μg/ml and in lower concentration it was ineffective. The results of the well diffusion test showed the inhibition of fluoride mouthwash in pure concentration on the Streptococcus mutans was (17 mm) and on the lactobacillus acidophilus 24 mm was obtained. In Fuchs mouthwash was zero and it represented effectiveness of fluoride on bacteria and ineffectiveness of Fuchs.

Conclusion: The fluoride mouthrinse in different concentrations, because of having a good inhibitory effect in both methods on Streptococcus mutans and Lactobacillus acidophilus was more effective compared with that of Fuchs mouthrinse.

Imaneh Asgari, Neda Ghanea,
Volume 30, Issue 2 (8-2017)

Background and Aims: First molar has an important role at individual’s dental health. Among the known risk factors, the experience of previous caries is of the best predictors for future caries. The aim of this study was to examine the association of primary teeth caries and other risk factors with the incidence of permanent teeth caries by considering the caries extent and severity.
Materials and Methods: This case-control study was done on 150 students from second and third grade with 9 years old. Cases included children with at least one carious permanent molar. Caries-free students who were matched based on the gender and mother education was considered as control group. Examination was done on dental unit under the unit light with blunt explorer and mirror for visual assessment. DMFT, dmft and caries severity (D1-D3) were recorded based on WHO standards. Data were calculated using SPSS18, Correlation, Chi Square Analysis, Odds ratio and Logistic regression.
Results: Linear correlation between dmft in primary teeth and DMFT in permanent molars was obtained with r:0.34 (P<0.001). Decay in permanent molars in students with active caries in primary molars was 3.3 times more probable than others. In regression model, the other risk factors such as cariogenic diet, mother`s education, brushing with toothpaste, flossing, using flouride, and regular dental visiting were not significant (P>0.05).
Conclusion: Caries-free primary teeth predicts permanent teeth without decay with a high possibility. It could be helpful in caries risk assessments.

Afsaneh Pakdaman, Behrouz Akbari-Adergani,
Volume 31, Issue 3 (11-2018)

Background and Aims: The systemic and topical preventive effect of fluoride on tooth decay has been reported. The aim of the present study was to determine the fluoride level in imported and national fluoridated dentifrices in the Iranian market.
Materials and Methods: Sampling was randomly performed from the main market centers and pharmacies in Tehran. The total fluoride (TF) and total soluble fluoride (TSF) concentrations were determined by ion specific electrode potentiometer method. The samples were coded and one trained researcher performed the analysis. Descriptive statistics as percentage and analytical statistics reported as independent t-test were reported.
Results: In adults’ toothpastes, the total fluoride ranged from 191 to 1601.9 ppm with the mean of 911.2 (SD=331.4) ppm. The total soluble fluoride ranged from 322.8 to 1518.8 ppm with the mean of 1021 (SD=279.8) ppm. In children’s toothpaste total fluoride ranged from 236.3 to 1163.7 ppm and the total fluoride of 594 (SD=375). Total soluble fluoride in children’s toothpaste ranged 655.6-1102.6 with the mean of 879.1 (SD=316.07). Analysis of the total fluoride (TF) and total soluble fluoride (TSF) showed that there was no significant difference between the local and imported toothpastes (P>0.05).
Conclusion: The fluoride level of Iranian toothpaste was similar to that of the imported toothpastes, however there was variation in the level of fluoride in products.

Fereshteh Abbaspour, Mahdia Gholami, Katayoun Sargeran,
Volume 32, Issue 4 (1-2020)

Background and Aims: Dental caries is a multifactorial and common disease that leads to a decrease in the quality of life of individuals. The aim of this study was to determine the relationship between serum vitamin D and dental caries in the third year-to-last year students of dental school of Tehran University of Medical Sciences.
Materials and Methods: This descriptive cross-sectional study was conducted on 123 dental students. Demographic and health information were completed through a checklist. The level of vitamin D in individuals was measured by blood sampling. We recorded caries by ICDAS (international caries detection and assessment system) in two levels of D(1-6)MFT (total of decayed, filled and missing tooth) and D(3-6)MFT (total of progressive decayed, filled and missing tooth). Data analysis was done by the SPSS package version 25 using statistical tests of correlation and regression.
Results: The results showed that the correlation coefficient between vitamin D and caries index D(1-6)MFT was -0.89 with a P-value of 0.3328 which was not statistically significant. Based on the backward logistic regression, there was a positive significant statistical association between the D(3-6)MFT with vitamin D deficiency (P<0.001), weight (P=0.012), dental visit (P=0.023) and frequency of sweet snack consumption (P=0.03). In addition a significant and inverse statistical association was reported between the D(3-6)MFT and milk consumption (P=0.026).
Conclusion: Among dentistry students, no relation between vitamin D deficiency and early stages of decay was seen, however this relation was statistically significant in regard with progressive dental caries.

Yousef Ahmadpour, Simin Zara Mohebbi, Samaneh Razeghi,
Volume 33, Issue 3 (10-2020)

Background and Aims: Dental anxiety and fear can act as a barrier to seek dental care leading to insufficient oral health in people. The aim of this study was to determine the relations between dental fear and anxiety with dental caries status (DMFT) and clinical consequences of untreated dental caries (PUFA) among the adult patients referred to the faculty dental clinic of Tehran University of Medical Sciences.
Materials and Methods: In this cross-sectional study in 2019, the patients above 18 years old were assessed. Two standard questionnaires, Dental Fear Scale (DFS) and Modified Dental Anxiety Scale (MDAS), were used to assess the scores of dental fear, and dental anxiety, respectively. The demographic data of the patients were recorded. Dental caries status and clinical consequences of untreated dental caries, using DMFT and PUFA, respectively, were measured. Pearson correlation coefficients and multiple linear regression model (Backward method) were used for statistical analysis.
Results: Totally, 283 patients with the mean age of 38.6±11.8 years old participated. The mean scores of MDAS, and DFS were 12.04±4.49, and 41.33±16.87, respectively. Educational level (P=0.03, β=-0.14) and marital status (P=0.01, β=0.17) had significant relationships with MDAS scores. Moreover, a significant relationship was found between marital status and DFS scores (P<0.001, β=0.25). Significant correlations were found between dental anxiety level and D (P<0.001, r=0.36) and M components (P=0.02, r=0.14) of DMFT index. Moreover, there was a significant correlation between dental anxiety and U components of PUFA index (P=0.045, r=-0.12). Furthermore, the correlations between dental fear and D and M component of DMFT were significant (P<0.001, r=0.36; P<0.001, r=0.23; respectively).
Conclusion: Dental anxiety and dental fear were infrequent in the studied population; however, significant relationships were found between dental anxiety and dental fear with dental caries indices. Therefore, it was concluded that the more MDAS and DFS scores, the worse dental caries status.

Azin Shishesaz, Reza Yazdani,
Volume 33, Issue 4 (1-2021)

Background and Aims: Child’s oral health is believed to be related with maternal dental fear and anxiety. The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the relationship between the demographic status and maternal dental fear and anxiety and its effect on child’s dental caries.
Materials and Methods: This descriptive and analytical study conducted among 374 mothers which had attended to pediatric department of Tehran University of Medical Sciences for their child’s dental treatments in 2019 were evaluated in the present study. In addition to dental fear survey (DFS) and modified dental anxiety survey (MDAS) questionnaires, demographic information, age, marital status, family income, and educational level of the mother was recorded. Dental visit frequency and previous negative experience were also recorded. DMFT/dmft (decayed, missed, filled teeth) of the children was recorded according to WHO criteria. To assess the relationship between the variables, Pearson correlation and multiple linear regression were used using SPSS25 software.
Results: The mean age of the mothers was 35.66±15.75. There was no relationship between maternal dental fear and anxiety and children’s dental caries status (P=0.738). There was no relationship between the mothers’ age and dental fear, and anxiety (P=0.943). Previous negative experience and education were related to the dental fear and anxiety (P=0.02).
Conclusion: dmft of the children was not correlated with the maternal dental fear and anxiety. Higher education which was related with less dental fear and anxiety. Previous negative experience is one of the major factors influencing the maternal dental fear and anxiety.

Afsaneh Pakdaman, Sholeh Ghabraei, Mohammad Javad Kharrazi Fard, Ali Saadatpoor Moghaddam,
Volume 34, Issue 0 (5-2021)

Background and Aims: Supporting the preventive approach is important in training future dentists. The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the knowledge, attitude and practice of senior dental students regarding non-invasive management of dental caries.
Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted in 2019 using total sampling method and a valid and reliable questionnaire. Knowledge, attitude and self-reported practice of senior dental students regarding caries risk assessment (CRA) and management of lesions in two paper patients were assessed. The data analysis was performed using SPSS20 and the descriptive and analytical statistics were reported.
Results: In overall, 86 students (response rate=91%) were responded. In the knowledge section, caries history in the previous year, having frequent fermentable carbohydrate, xerostomia, and low socio-economic status were considered by more than half of students as factor for caries risk assessment. More than 90% of students had a positive attitude towards CRA in children. Nearly 50% of students tend to restore enamel lesions in proximal and occlusal surfaces in high-risk scenarios. There was significant association between the OHI instruction and debris index improvement (P=0.04) in the integrated comprehensive care clinic (TUMS). The linear regression analysis showed that there was no significant association between the demographic characteristics, place of education, previous course on the level of knowledge and attitude.
Conclusion: Senior dental students despite their general knowledge and positive attitude toward caries risk assessment, tended to aggressively manage the incipient lesions in the enamel and DEJ. Delivering prevention as integrated in the comprehensive care unit in order to improve oral hygiene status of patients is recommended.

Shirin Taravati, Zahra Abbasihormozi,
Volume 35, Issue 0 (5-2022)

Background and Aims: Dental caries affects the quality of life of children and parents, oral health and overall health which can interfere with the childrens’ daily activities and growth. The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between the severity of dental caries and quality of life in pre-school children.
Materials and Methods: This cross-sectional descriptive study was conducted on 145 parents and preschool children aged 2-5 years old referring to Ahvaz dental school and a pediatric dentistry office in Ahvaz city. The convenient sampling method was used and participants were patients referred to the faculty of dentistry and one pediatric dentistry office in Ahvaz. Early Childhood Oral Health Impact Scale (ECOHIS) questionnaire was used to evaluate the oral health related quality of life. The demographic information and dmft index (decayed, missing, and filled teeth) was assessed for children. Statistical analyzes included descriptive statistics, Spearman and Pearson tests.
Results: The mean age of children was 4.12 ± 1.2 years. 72 children (49.65%) were boys and 73 of children (50.34%) were girls. Based on our results the mean ECOHIS score was 39.69 ± 18.95. There was a significant correlation between decreased quality of life and the lower age of the children (P=0.047), less parental education (P=0.018), more dmft score (P=0.000).
Conclusion: It can be concluded that severity of dental caries is effective on children's quality of life. The quality of life of children decreases with the increase in the dmft, lower socio-economic status of parents, and higher age of parents.

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