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Showing 23 results for Dental Implant

V. Mortazavi , Mh.  fathi ,
Volume 13, Issue 1 (4-2000)

Characterization of bioceramics coating and evaluation of the influence of kind of coating on the implantation has been developed in recent years.Different bioceramics coating like calcium phosphate, hydroxyapatite, fluorapatite and bioglass were coated on dental and orthopedic implants. In-vitro and in-vivo experiments were done for evolution of implant success and reliability and study of factors, which may influence the results.Researches indicate that different bioceramic coating may affect the bone bonding mechanism.Biodegredable calcium phosphate coating can be resorbed and be replaced with bone tissues.Hydroxyapatite cause earlier stabilization of dental implant in surrounding bone (biological fixation) and reduce healing time. Bioglass can protect substrate and provide interfacial attachment to bone.

Sb. Moosavi , Mh.  fathi , Gh. Feizi , V. Mortazavi ,
Volume 14, Issue 1 (7-2001)

Bone osseointegration around dental implant can cause earlier stabilization and fixation of implant and reduce healing time. Hydroxyapatite coating can affect bone osseointegration and enhance its rates. The aim of this study was comparison of osseointegration between plasma sprayed hydroxyapatite coated and uncoated dental implants in cats. Four endodontic implants including, vitallium and two stainless steel with and without hydroxyapatite coating were prepared and placed in mandibular canines of 20 cats after completion of root canal treatment and osseous preparation. After a healing period of 4 months, investigation by scanning electron microscopy showed significant difference in ossointegration between coated and uncoated dental implants and average bone osseointegration of coated implants was more than uncoated implants.
M. Paknegad , A. Miremadi , M. Tabatabaei-E-Yazdi , M. Khodadad-E- Motarjemi ,
Volume 16, Issue 2 (5-2003)

Statement of Problem: The correlation between the activity of aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) enzymes in gingival sulcular fluid (GCF) with inflammation and periodontal attachment loss has been proved, however there are not adequate studies about dental implants.

Purpose: The aim of present study was to investigate the presence and activity level of AST & ALP and their correlation with pocket depth (PD) and bleeding of peri-implant slcular fluid (PISF), and to evaluate the possibility of using these assessments as a diagnostic index in oral implantology.

Material and Methods: In this study, 41 implants as test group and 41 contralateral teeth as control group, in 21 patients were evaluated. At first visit, the general information about implants and the values of pocket probing depth (PPD), modified sulcus bleeding index (mSBl) and modified plaque index (mPI) were recorded. At the second visit, samples of GCF/PISF were collected. AST & ALP activity was determined spectrophotometrically and data were analyzed by "t", "Mann-Whitney" tests and Pearson Spearman correlation coefficient.
Results: The results showed that there was a significant difference in the activity of AST between two study groups (P<0.0001). The average activity of ALP in test group was more than control group but the difference was not significant. After elimination of the confounding variables, the average AST in test group was 54.6 (S£=2.3) and in control groups was 44.8 (SE=2.3) (P=0.004). The average ALP in test group (SE=2.2) and in control (SE=2.2) were 36.6 and 35.4, respectively. Values of AST and ALP were positively correlated with other clinical parameters such as PD and mSBI which was significant in test group.
Conclusion: The present study suggests that PISF analysis could be considered as a proper diagnostic strategy in the evaluation of dental implant success.

Ar. Talaeipour , M. Panjnoush , R. Zargarpour ,
Volume 20, Issue 3 (6-2007)

Background and Aim: Accurate measurement of bone height and width is essential prior to dental implant placement. The method of surgery as well as, the type and size of implants are determined according to dimensions of the residual bone. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the accuracy of linear tomography in localization of the floor of nasal fossa and maxillary sinus, and to determine the width of maxillary bone at the designated site for implant placement.

Materials and Methods: In this test evaluation study, the vertical distances between the alveolar crest and the floor of nasal fossa and the floor of maxillary sinus was measured by the tomographic slices in 12 sites of three dry human skulls. In addition, the width of maxillary bone was measured at the same slices. The skulls were then sectioned through the marked places. Then the radiographic values were compared with the real values of bone sections.

Results: After correction of tomographic values by the magnification factor of the unit, the mean absolute measurement error for vertical values at nasal fossa and maxillary sinus area in tomographic slices were 0.28 mm (SD= 0.24) and 1.1 mm (SD= 0.68) respectively. The mean absolute measurement error for maxillary width at the nasal fossa and maxillary sinus area were 0.65 mm (SD= 0.50) and 0.55 mm (SD= 0.45) respectively. 100 % of vertical values at nasal fossa area and 50 % of vertical values at maxillary sinus area were within ± 1 mm error limit. In addition, 50 % of width measurements at nasal fossa area and 83.3 % at maxillary sinus area were within ± 1 mm error limit.

Conclusion: The linear tomography is more accurate in height estimation at nasal fossa area and in width estimation at maxillary sinus area. The accuracy of linear tomography in height and width estimation is within acceptable limits at both nasal fossa and maxillary sinus area.

M. Panjnosh, H. Siadat, M. Alikhasi, M. Alihoseini,
Volume 22, Issue 2 (11-2009)

Background and Aim: It is well recognized that implant treatment is common worldwide, but the approach to success is not predictable because of bone loss that occurs around the implants. Also there are many factors affecting crestal bone loss around the implants that one of them is the surgical protocol of implant installation. The purpose of this investigation was to evaluate the amount of crestal bone loss around the Replace implants installed according to submerged and non- submerged treatment protocol.

Materials and Methods: In this study, 11 patients received 34 implants. In each patient (unilateral or bilateral mandible), one of the implants was placed with submerged procedure and in the other one non- submerged procedure was used. In a period of 3 months a temporary partial denture that covered the implants was used. After 3 months the submerged fixture was exposed, impression was performed and fixed prosthesis was fabricated. Loss of crestal bone at each implant was measured. These measurements have been done at surgical times, over a period of 3 months after implant installation and 6 months after the delivery of the fixed prosthesis. The measurement was done with digital subtraction radiography. Data was analyzed by Wilcoxon Signed Ranks test.

Results: Three months after implant placement, submerged groups showed statistically more crestal bone loss (0.65±0.71) than non-submerged (0.41±0.53) group (p=0.02). After 6 months the mean value of crestal bone loss in submerged group was 0.21±0.40 mm and in non submerged group was 0.29±0.49 mm. This data indicated no statistically significant difference between the two groups of implants (p>0.05).

Conclusion: Our results are in accordance with previously published studies and confirm that the value of crestal bone loss in submerged and non-submerged groups after 3 and 6 months were similar and in acceptable limit.

K. Seyedan, R. Nahidi,
Volume 22, Issue 4 (1-2010)

Background and Aims: Soft tissue management with providing the esthetic for restoration of a single implant in the anterior maxilla is of great importance. Tissue training helps to develop a proper emergence profile and natural tooth appearance. The aim of this article was to report a nonsurgical management of undesirable contours of soft tissue around maxillary anterior implants to achieve an optimum appearance.

Materials and Methods: A 23-year-old female with congenital missing of maxillary lateral incisors, after completion of a fixed orthodontic treatment and gain enough space, received 2 dental implants. After second phase surgery and healing period, construction of the restorations was not possible through conventional method because of severe soft tissue collapse. In this case, soft tissue contours were corrected using a provisional restoration and then final restoration was made and delivered.

Conclusion: Tissue training with a provisional restoration helps to re-establish normal gingival tissue contours and interdental papillae around the restoration of maxillary anterior implants.

S. Nikzad, A. Azari,
Volume 23, Issue 1 (6-2010)

Surgical and prosthodontic implant complications are often the case of inadvertent improper diagnosis, planning, and placement. These complications always pose a significant challenge in implant dentistry. In this article, it is attempted to depict a new technique in which advanced software program along with newly developed CAD/CAM technology called rapid prototyping will be used. This technology permits graphic and complex 3D implant simulation and then fabrication of computer-generated surgical templates. The best position of implants planned at first by taking into consideration of encased bone density of each implants and then existing occlusion. In this paper, the evolution of Computer Guided Implantology and the many benefits achieved from this very sophisticated technology described as a literature review.

Mr. Mallakzadeh, A. Zandi, E. Atefi,
Volume 24, Issue 3 (6-2011)

Background and Aims: Relative displacement of the implant with respect to bone and quality of bone-implant contact play critical roles in the dental implant stability. The goal of this study was to investigate the dental implant stability using non-linear finite elements method. Therefore, bone-implant relative displacement due to applied force to the implant was calculated, and then an appropriate factor for defining quality of bone-implant contact was presented.
Materials and Methods: In order to develop a three dimensional model and compare the results with clinical studies, computed tomography (CT) scan data of a rabbit tibia was considered as a base. The model was exported to ABAQUS 6.9-1 to be analyzed using nonlinear finite elements method. Dynamic analysis was done on the model using the proper boundary condition and dynamic loads.
Results: Force-displacement curves in bone-implant interface were nonlinear. Friction coefficient, which is a criterion for implant stability and relative displacement, approximately became doubled as the vertical contact force was halved. However, the friction coefficient decreased with reduction of coulomb frictional coefficient.
Conclusion: Friction coefficient, which is calculated upon force-displacement curves, could be considered as a criterion to evaluate the dental implant stability. Decrease of the vertical contact force and also using rough surfaces improved the quality of bone-implant contact and stability of dental implant.

Mohammadreza Mallakzadeh, Milad Farzadi,
Volume 25, Issue 4 (1-2013)

Background and Aims: Different mechanisms have been developed for connecting abutment to implant. One of the most popular mechanisms is Tapered Integrated Screw (TIS), which is a Tapered Interference Fit (TIF) with a screw integrated at the bottom of that. The aim of this study was to investigate the mechanism of TIS and effective factors in employing TIS during design and implementation processes using an analytic method.

Materials and Methods: Relevant equations were developed to predict tightening and loosening torques, contact pressure and preloads with and without bone tissue in this analysis. The efficiency is defined as the ratio of the loosening torque to the tightening torque. The effects of the change in elastic modulus and thickness of the bone on operation of this mechanism were investigated.

Results: In this study, 14 independent parameters such as taper angle, friction coefficient, abutment and implant geometry that are effective on performance of TIS mechanism were presented. The role of some factors was shown in the performance of ITI implant using sensitivity analysis.

Conclusion: It was shown that friction coefficient, contact length, and implant radius play major roles on tightening and loosening torques and efficiency of the mechanism. Furthermore, the results revealed that the change in the elastic modulus and thickness of the bone influenced the efficiency of the mechanism less than 15%.

Horie Fakhar Bashizade, Neda Molaei, Ali Teimoorinezhad,
Volume 26, Issue 1 (3-2013)

Background and Aims: The Panoramic radiography is one of the routine techniques in implant imaging. Although there are some limitations with this technique, panoramic radiography is radiographic choice for basic evaluation for implant treatment. Many studies have been designed to determine magnification in panoramic images but most of them were performed on dry skulls or radiographic phantoms. In recent studies CT or CBCT are used as gold standard. The aim of this study was to determine vertical magnification of panoramic images using renovated CT sections in anterior and posterior regions of both jaws.

Materials and Methods: 30 panoramic radiographs (Planmeca EC or CC Proline) were selected from patients of implant department and Particular anatomic landmarks were selected in those images. Vertical dimensions of these landmarks were measured in both panoramic and renovated cross sectional CT images by a digital caliper and vertical magnification was calculated as the ratio of image dimensions to the real dimensions.

Results: The mean vertical magnification of panoramic radiographs in anterior and posterior maxillae were 1.22±0.02 and 1.16±0.02, respectively. The mean vertical magnification of panoramic radiograph in anterior and posterior mandible were 1.20±0.02 and 1.13±0.02, respectively. The differences between magnification in mandible and maxillae were significant (P<0.001). The differences between magnification in anterior and posterior regions of both jaws were not significant (P=0.11).

Conclusion: Vertical magnification of panoramic images (Planmeca EC or CC Proline) in different regions in both jaws were between 1.13 to 1.22.

Mohamad Reza Khalili, Babak Ziaie, Mahmoud Kazemi,
Volume 26, Issue 4 (1-2014)

  Background and Aims: Dental implants have been studied for replacement of missing teeth for many years. Productivity of implants is extremely related to the stability and resistance under applied loads and the minimum stress in jaw bone. The purpose of this study was to study numerically the 3D model of implant under thermal loads.

  Materials and Methods: Bone and the ITI implant were modeled in “Solidworks” software. To obtain the exact model, the bone was assumed as a linear orthotropic material. The implant system, including implant, abutment, framework and crown were modeled and located in the bone. After importing the model in Abaqus software, the material properties and boundary conditions and loads were applied and after meshing, the model was analyzed. In this analysis, the loads were applied in two steps. In the first step, the mechanical load was applied as tightening torque to the abutment and the abutment was tightened in the implant with 35 torque. In the second step, the thermal load originated from drinking cold and hot water was applied as thermal flux on the ceramic crown surface in this model.

  Results: Thermal analysis results showed that the thermal gradient in the bone was about 5.5 and 4.9 degrees of centigrade in the case of drinking cold and hot water respectively , although the maximum gradient of the whole system was reduced to 14 degrees, which occurred, in the crown by drinking cold water.

  Conclusion Thermal stresses were so small and it was because of the low thermal gradient. Maximum stresses occurred in the abutment were due to the tension preloads which were originated from the tightening torque.

Mahmod Kazemi, Saeed Nokar, Ahmad Rohanian, Adel Pazhohan,
Volume 26, Issue 4 (1-2014)

  Background and Aims: Thermal changes in the oral cavity can be transferred to the implants placed in bone and affect the prognosis of the treatments. Furthermore, some investigators proposed improvement of habitual consumption of hot or cold beverages. The aim of the present study was to measure the effect of temperature changes in the oral cavity following consumption of hot and cold drinks on the temperature of implant.

  Materials and Methods: In this clinical trial, 3 eligible patients were selected. Two months after implant insertion, temperature of the implants was measured following the drinking of hot and cold beverages using a sensor connected to a thermometer. The thermal changes of the implants through the different time intervals were analyzed using Friedman non-parametric test.

  Results: The implant temperatures were significantly increased in the time following drinking of the hot beverages (P=0.009). Furthermore, the implant temperature were statistically decreased in the time after drinking cold beverage (P=0.004). When drinking hot beverages, the maximum and minimum temperatures were 41.57 0 C and 36.77 0 C, respectively. The maximum and minimum temperatures of the implants were also 34.13 0 C and 26.83 0 C , respectively, when drinking cold beverages.

  Conclusion: It seems that the temperatures noted in the implants in the current study cannot weaken the prognosis of implant restorations however, habitual consumption of hot and cold beverages can lead to debilitating implant prognosis and therefore, should be given the necessary warnings to patients.

Mojgan Paknejad, Yadollah Soleimani Shayesteh, Zahra Nasr Esfahani, Nina Rezomeh, Mohadeseh Heidari, Ali Mehrfard,
Volume 27, Issue 1 (4-2014)

  Background and Aims: The increase in the number of complex implant cases has drawn the attention of researchers toward materials having bone regeneration promoting ability. Socket preservation and bone graft are recommended to minimize bone resorption. The aim of this study was to evaluate a kind of xenograft collagenic bone (osteo biol gen_oss) in socket regeneration.

  Materials and Methods: This randomized clinical trial was performed in 12 cases (6 in test and 6 in control groups) with two hopeless teeth. After tooth extraction, in test group, graft material was put in sockets but in the control group the socket was healed naturally. Three months later, during implant placement the specimens from both sites were sent to a pathologist for histologic and histomorphometric evaluations. Data were analyzed using Mc Nemar and Wilcoxan sigh rank test (α=0.05).

  Results: There were no significant differences between two groups in foreign body reaction, inflammation, bone vitality and percentage of bone gain. Average percentage of residual graft in test site was 6.73±1.43.

  Conclusion: Osteobiol gen_oss xenograft is an appropriate biocompatible osteoconductive material that promotes bone regeneration at 3 months following socket preservation in human extraction sockets.

Hadi Asgharzadeh Shirazi, Mohammadreza Mallakzadeh,
Volume 27, Issue 2 (6-2014)

  Background and Aims: Hydroxyapatite coating has allocated a special place in dentistry due to its biocompatibility and bioactivity. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the relation between the hydroxyapatite thickness and stress distribution by using finite element method.

  Materials and Methods: In this paper, the effect of hydroxyapatite coating thickness on dental implants was studied using finite element method in the range between 0 to 200 microns. A 3D model including one section of mandible bone was modeled by a thick layer of cortical surrounding dense cancellous and a Nobel Biocare commercial brand dental implant was simulated and analyzed under static load in the Abaqus software.

  Results The diagram of maximum von Mises stress versus coating thickness was plotted for the cancellous and cortical bones in the range between 0 to 200 microns. The obtained results showed that the magnitude of maximum von Mises stress of bone decreased as the hydroxyapatite coating thickness increased. Also, the thickness of coating exhibited smoother stress distribution and milder variations of maximum von Mises stress in a range between 60 to 120 microns.

  Conclusion: In present study, the stress was decreased in the mandible bone where hydroxyapatite coating was used. This stress reduction leads to a faster stabilization and fixation of implant in the mandible bone. Using hydroxyapatite coating as a biocompatible and bioactive material could play an important role in bone formation of implant- bone interface.

Majid Sahebi, Marzieh Alikhasi, Farshad Movafegh, Vahideh Nazari,
Volume 29, Issue 1 (7-2016)

Background and Aims: In response to esthetic demand and use of zirconia abutments; detection of implant-abutment connection misfit is so important. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the sensitivity and specificity of radiographic images in the detection of abutment-implant connection misfit in zirconia and titanium abutments of three different implant connections.

Materials and Methods: One regular implant fixture of Branemark, Noble active and Replace systems were mount in acrylic models. Two pieces titanium and zirconium abutments were attached to the implants, once with correct adaptation and once with 0.5 mm spacer. Digital radiographic images were taken of 12 created states with zero degree vertical and horizontal inclination and evaluated by 10 specialists in implant treatment in two different time penods. Data were analyzed using Kappa analysis.

Results: Interclass Correlation Coefficients (ICC) of the agreement of answers in the first and second times were 97.4 and 97.5, respectively (P<0/001). Sensitivity of detecting gap in all groups was acceptable (95-100%) except titanium abutment in Noble active which was the lowest value (35%). Specificity of all groups were acceptable (80-95%) except zirconia abutments in Noble active and Replace with 45% and 30% values, respectively, and titanium abutments in Branemark had the highest value (95%).

Conclusion: The sensitivity of radiographic images in detection of abutment-implant connection misfit only in Noble active with titanium abutment was not acceptable. Specificity of radiographic images in the absence of gap in titanium abutments was more favorable.

Adel Pirjamalineisiani, Mohsen Sarafbidabad, Nima Jamshidi,
Volume 29, Issue 3 (10-2016)

Background and Aims: Improving dental implantation conditions in order to reduce the failure is always desirable for researchers. The aim of this study was to compare two different materials of dental implants from the viewpoint of biomechanical effect after placement and loading in the mandible.

Materials and Methods: A 3D model of mandible was designed in the MIMICS 10.01 software. Then, by using the obtained model, the end part of the mandible was designed in CATIA V5 software and a drilling operation was performed on the cortical bone of mandible by finite element analysis simulation method in DEFORM-3D V6.1 software. Thereafter, the 3D model of created hole was extract from the drilled site and an ITI dental implant model designed in the CATIA V5 software, was placed in the hole. The space remained between the implant and cavity was considered as a newly-formed cortical bone in drilled site after 6 weeks of dental implant placement and the mechanical properties of newly-formed bone were entered to DEFORM-3D V6.1 software. Then, a load was applied on the top surfaces of two dental implant models with the materials titanium and zirconium-2.5% niobium.

Results: The emerged volume changes in newly formed cortical bone around Ti and Zr-2.5 Nb dental implants were measured 0.238 and 0.242 percent, respectively. Furthermore, micro-motion of Ti and Zr-2.5 Nb dental implants were measured 0.00514 and 0.00538 mm, respectively.

Conclusion: The results of this study showed that Ti dental implant created better conditions than Zr-2.5 Nb dental implant in the mandible.

Somayeh Zeighami, Hakimeh Siadat, Marzieh Alikhasi, Zeinab Saeidi,
Volume 30, Issue 1 (6-2017)

Background and Aims: Taking impression from angulated implants has always been a great challenge in clinic. In this regard, studies on sectional trays are very few. The aim of this study was to evaluate and compare the dimensional and angular accuracy of impressions using full arch and sectional trays.

Materials and Methods: Four implants (4.3 × 12 mm) (Implantium, Dentium) were placed in the first premolar and molar regions of a Kennedy class I mandibular acrylic model with 30° lingual angulation. Twenty open special trays (Full arch & Sectional) were made on the primary cast. The impressions were taken using vinyl polysiloxane (VPS) and were poured with type IV dental stone. The coordinate measuring machine (CMM) was used to measure the dimensional (Z, Y, X) and angular (θ) coordinates of implants. The data were analyzed using and t-test and SPSS 22. Software.

Results: The type of tray had no significant effect on the dimensional accuracy in X, Y and Z axes (P>0.05) and total linear displacement (r); However, it significantly affected the angular accuracy (∆q) (P<0.05).

Conclusion: Sectional tray yields less rotational displacement in impressions made of angulated implants.

Hakimeh Siadat, Amin Jabbari, Mohammad Taghi Baghani, Marzieh Alikhasi,
Volume 30, Issue 1 (6-2017)

Background and Aims: The exact placement of impression copings in making accurate prosthesis is very important. In some cases, the implants need to be placed deeply subgingival, which could reduce the direct vision and ultimately reduce the precision of impression copings and subsequently, delivered prosthesis. This would be the cause of multiple complications such as delivery of ill-fitting prosthesis. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of the dental implant placement depth on the accuracy of impression coping connection by students.

Materials and Methods: This in-vitro and experimental study was conducted by 50 senior dental students. Four implants at different depths (0, 2, 4 and 6 mm) were placed in a model. After learning how to mount impression coping on implants, the students were asked to mount impression copings on all four implants. The samples were examined by an experienced prosthodontist using a magnifier with 4x magnification. Data were analyzed by statistical Cochran test (P<0.05(.

Results: The proper adapting rate of transfer copings, in subgingival implants with the depth of 0, 2, 4 and 6 mm were 100%, 62%, 58% and 20%, respectively. Statistically significant differences were observed between all groups (P<0.001).

Conclusion: The results showed that there was an inverse relationship between the increasing depth of the implants in the gingiva and the dentist’s ability to connect the impression copings properly.

Abbas Rahimi Foroushani, Nooshin Akbari Sharak, Mohamad Javad Kharazi Fard,
Volume 30, Issue 2 (8-2017)

Background and Aims: In recent years, dental implants have received special attention in dentistry. Due to the remarkable success of predictable dental implants, there is growing interests in the scientific community from descriptions of implant success toward identify factors associated with implant failure. The purpose of this study was to identify the risk factors associated with implant failure in an objective and statistically valid manner.
Materials and Methods: To address the research purposes, we used a cohort study in which a total of 2368 implants were placed on 1011 patient in the Clinic of Tehran University of Medical Sciences. The predictor variables included demographic variables, the health status and variables are related to implants. The outcome variable of interest was implant failure. The overall implant survival was estimated using the Kaplan-Meier analysis. First, risk factors were identified using Chi-square test and Fisher's exact test and then the Cox proportional hazard regression models were used for more analysis.
Results: The overall 39 month implant survival using the Kaplan-Meier function was 0.99±0.002. The implant location (jaws) (P=0.049) and type of teeth (P=0.011) were found to have significant relation with failure times in Cox proportional hazard model.
Conclusion: According to result of this study, both implant location and type of teeth had effection the failure times so that, the survival in mandible was higher than maxilla. The failure rate was higher in anterior teeth than that of others (molar, premolar, canine and primary).

Somayeh Zeighami, Marzieh Alikhasi, Maryam Memarian, Moeen Hosseini Shirazi,
Volume 30, Issue 4 (1-2018)

Background and Aims: For the clinical success of implant-retained prostheses, fitness of matching components and stability of the applied torque to the implant-abutment assembly under dynamic occlusal loading is essential. The aim of this study was to evaluate the torque loss in Co-Cr castable abutments after cyclic loading.
Materials and Methods: 10 castable abutments were cast in Co-Cr alloy with similar size and height. Each specimen was mounted vertically on a separated implant using a 30 Ncm tightening torque. The detorque values of the abutments were evaluated after 10 min. The same tightening torque was applied to the abutments on their corresponding implants and cyclic loading was applied for 500,000 cycles to the implant-abutment assembly. The torque values after cyclic loading were recorded for each specimen. T-test analysis was conducted on scores from the groups.
Resultes: The results of this study showed that the percentage of torque loss in castable abutments was significantly increased after cyclic loading (P<0.001).
Conclusion: Misfit between the castable implant components can cause torque loss before and after cyclic loading. However, it is more appropriate to relate the results of this study to the screw loosening of the above mentioned abutments than judging their clinical performance.

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