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Parastou Safania, Raha Barahmand, Amir Mohammad Safania,
Volume 34, Issue 0 (5-2021)

Background and Aims: Due to the prevalence of corona virus and restrictions on access to health care in the community, there are clearly many concerns and problems for the lives of people, especially the elderly. Older people are at higher risk for this type of virus than the other ages. The purpose of this study was to investigate the status of dental services for the elderly during the corona outbreak and to provide solutions related to oral health of the elderly during the corona virus pandemic.
Materials and Methods: The present review study was performed and the selected keywords were: coronavirus and dentistry, dentistry and the elderly, corona and the elderly. Articles were selected based on findings and related texts. English language articles were selected using Google Scholar, Science direct, PubMed and Research Gate search engines. Sources were reviewed between January 2019 and October 2020. Based on inclusion and exclusion criteria, 15 articles were reviewed.
Results: Research findings showed that most studies have pointed to the importance of mobile and tele-dentistry. In a coronary pandemic, it is very important to correctly diagnose the patient's problems and determine the best type of treatment for the elderly. In addition, the elderly should be prevented from entering the unnecessary dental treatments.
Conclusion: Many elderly people avoid the treatment of oral diseases during coronavirus pandemic due to fear of coronavirus, high dental costs, lack of access to appropriate services, and this causes irreparable problems in their health. Therefore, it is recommended to provide practical solutions to facilitate the dental treatment of elderly patients.

Yasaman Azimi, Zahra Ghorbani, Tayebe Rojhanian,
Volume 35, Issue 0 (5-2022)

Background and Aims: Activity-based costing enumerate every input consumed in treatment. The Covid-19 pandemic changed the dental treatment protocols and the ordinary circumstances of patients. The aim of this study was to calculate and compare the costs of three common dental services in Iran from the viewpoint of the providers and recipients of the services before the Covid-19 pandemic (2019) and during the pandemic (2021).
Materials and Methods: Direct medical and non-medical costs were considered from the service provider's perspective. Direct medical costs, indirect costs, direct non-medical costs, and intangible costs were considered from the recipient's perspective. To calculate the equivalent costs, the base year was considered 2021, and the costs of 2019 were calculated with a discount rate of 16%.
Results: From the service provider's perspective before the pandemic, the cost of dental amalgam restoration was 2,851,235 Rials, root canal treatment was 6,351,580 Rials, and tooth extraction was 1,887,295 Rials. The cost of these services in 2021 was 5,562,150 Rials, 8,070,591 Rials, and 4,865,563 Rials, respectively. From the recipient's perspective, before the pandemic, the cost of tooth restoration was 715,466 Rials, root canal treatment was 2,883,001 Rials, and tooth extraction was 3,267,359 Rials. The cost of the mentioned services in the year 2021 was 1,212,528 Rials, 3,971,640, and 3,680,880 Rials, respectively.
Conclusion: The Covid-19 pandemic has had an effect on increasing the cost of dental services from both the service provider and recipient perspective, but economic volatility has a vital role in increasing the estimated costs in the country. Probably, a part of the increase in costs was due to the role of brokers in providing dental materials and equipment.

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