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Ma. Behnaz , F.   Behnaz , M. Mohammadzadeh ,
Volume 17, Issue 1 (4-2004)

Statement of Problem: Hepatitis C is a relatively common infection which can be transmitted through accidental inoculation consequently dentists are highly at the risk of exposure to this virus.
Purpose: The aim of this study was to determine prevalence of Hepatitis C among the dentists of Yazd and to evaluate their knowledge about the existing ways for the transmission and prevention of this infection.
Materials and Methods: In this descriptive- analytic study which was performed periodically (2002), the sera of all dentists practicing in Yazd were tested (104 samples) in the laboratory of Yazd blood transfusion organization initially by 1st generation of Elisa for Anti HCV followed by Riba on positive samples to confirm the results. Meanwhile a questionnaire assessing their knowledge about hepatitis was completed the by the dentists. Data were analyzed by ANOVA and t test.
Results: None of the one hundred and four samples of sera were positive for Anti HCV. Mean score of their knowledge was 14.80 (of 20). The knowledge of 92.1% of them was at moderate to high level. No significant difference was observed between Yazd's dentists knowledge about hepatitis C in different age, gender and length of professional experience groups.
Conclusion: According to this study, the absence of HCV among the dentists of Yazd is mainly attributed to the low prevalence of HCV infection among general population, though it can also be an indicative of the knowledge and excellent performance of the dentists to prevent the transmission of infection through blood and saliva.
F. Ezoddini Ardakani , A. Haerian Ardakani , Mh. Akhavankarbasi , Kh. Dehghan Tezerjani .,
Volume 17, Issue 4 (1-2005)

Statement of Problem: According to many researches done in the field of occupational disorders dentists are considered at the risk of musculoskeletal problems. These problems may cause reduction of job length of dentists.
Purpose: This study was done for evaluating the musculoskeletal disorders of dentists, practicing in Yazd.
Materials and Methods: This is a descriptive cross-sectional study, conveyed in Yazd city in 1999 by survey among all of working dentists with eye-to-eye contact questionnaire reply.
Results: Among dentists were interviewed 81.6% of respondents mentioned at least one of musculoskeletal problems. The mentioned disorders were respectively Neck (47.1%) hand (36.2%), wrist (34.8%), upper and lower parts of back (33.3%), shoulder (11.59%), knee (2.8%). About 72.5% of the individuals had no familial history and just 4.5% had these disorders before working as a dentist.
Conclusion: Results of this study revealed that majority of musculoskeletal disorders had significant relationship with age, gender, work place, working hours, level of exercise, direct vision and duration of the job of dental occupation.
J. Ayatollahi , R. Bahrololomi , F. Ayatollahi ,
Volume 18, Issue 3 (5-2005)

Oral health care workers may be exposed to a variety of infectious agents as they carry out their professional responsibilities. Dentists must recognize diseases that are most commonly transmitted in dental offices. Oral health care providers should assess their needs for immunization based on the characteristics of their clinical work setting and own risk-taking profile. Relevant articles in the medical literature were derived from searching Medline database (1966 to present) with key terms immunization, oral health care and dentist. On searching the database, a total of 70 studies were included in this review. Use of vaccines safeguards the health of workers in various type of oral health care delivery settings.
A. Mirfazaelian , H. Siadat ,
Volume 19, Issue 3 (6-2006)

Dental portraits are predominantly used for orthodontics, orthognathic surgery and prosthetic dentistry. If these images are to be used for documentation, then the patient must be positioned in accordance with strict guidelines for further references. If the images are to be used to present an aesthetic impression of dental treatment there is more flexibility in positioning the patient. Dental photography is used to make pictures of teeth and surrounding tissues, radiographs, casts and other objects. In this section, standard principles for portrait pictures are explained.
H. Siadat , A. Mirfazaelian ,
Volume 19, Issue 4 (1-2007)

Object photography in dentistry including dental instruments, models, teeth and gross specimens has some special features and needs special onsideration. These objects are usualy very small, highly usually reflective and often with very bright surfaces. They need special lighting and other accessories for acceptable results. On the other hand, in laboratories and dental clinics we haven't enough time for taking photographs.The purpose of this article is to introduce the inciples of object photography in dentistry.
A. Abolghasemi , M. Hajjaran , A. Kiamarsi ,
Volume 20, Issue 2 (5-2007)

Background and Aim: Dental anxiety is a common problem in pediatric dentistry and results in behaviors like fear and anger that can negatively affect dental treatments. Exposure to various dental treatments and distressful experiences are reasons for anxiety during dental treatments. The aim of this study was to evaluate effect of cognitive behavioral interventions in reduction of stress during dental procedures in children.

Materials and Methods: In this clinical trial, 42 boys and girls, undergoing dental treatments were selected from dental clinics in Tehran. Patients were assigned to cognitive-behavioral interventions, placebo and control conditions. The fear scale, anger facial scale, pain facial scale and physiologic measure of pulse beat were evaluated. One way ANOVA and Tukey test were used to analyze the results and p<0.05 was the level of significance.

Results: Results showed significant differences between cognitive-behavioral interventions, placebo and control groups regarding fear, anger, pain and pulse beat. Comparison tests revealed that cognitive-behavioral interventions were more effective in reducing fear, anger, pain and pulse beat compared to the placebo or control.

Conclusion: According to the results of this study cognitive-behavioral interventions can be used to reduce distress of children undergoing dental procedures.

J. Pourhashemi, F. Mohandes, Ar. Talaeipour,
Volume 21, Issue 1 (10-2008)

Background and Aim: Diagnosis of occlusal caries in early stages is more difficult than other types, and  needs practical proficiency and accuracy as well as application of advanced and modern equipments. The aim of this study was to evaluate the variations among dentists in diagnosis of occlusal caries.

Materials and Methods: In this descriptive cross-sectional study, 6 permanent first molar teeth of 8-10 years old children with occlusal caries of 1, 2 and 3 degrees were selected (Espelid method). Color photographs and bitewing radiographs of teeth were displayed on computer monitor and 157 general dentists were asked to determine the existence and depth of caries. Data were analyzed using SPSS software and chi-square test. P<0.05 was considered as the level of significance.

Results: 94% of dentists did not diagnose any lesion in grade I caries.3.8% reported enamel caries (correct diagnosis) and 1.9% reported dentin caries. In grade II caries, 15.7% of dentists could not diagnose any caries, 60.7% recognized the caries at the level of enamel (correct diagnosis), and 22.31% reported the dentin level, and 1.3% reported pulp exposures.7% of dentists could not diagnose any caries in grade III, while 27.2% recognized lesions at enamel and 58.9% at dentin level (correct diagnosis), 6.1% of dentists reported pulp exposures and 0.3% did not respond. Female dentists showed significantly higher correct diagnosis compared to males (p=0.013).

Conclusion: Based on the results of this study, despite considerable variations among general dentists in diagnosis of occlusal caries, the total accuracy was acceptable.

M. Hashemipour, Mr. Korki,
Volume 21, Issue 3 (12-2008)

Background and Aim: Infective endocarditis is a rare disease resulted in mortality and morbidity in 10-80% of patients. The purpose of present study was to investigate the knowledge of guidelines on antibiotic prophylaxis for bacterial endocarditis in a group of Iranian dentists.

Materials and Methods: This was a descriptive study in which the population under study was 205 who were participated in the 47th international congress of dentistry (Tehran-Spring 2007) and they were chosen by census sampling methods. Nameless questionnaires were designed and were given to the dentists to complete. The t-test, χ² and spearman with the SPSS 13.5 program were used in the data analysis. P<0.05 was considered as the level of significance.

Results: Regarding to the prescribing of prophylactic antibiotic for patients with prosthetic cardiac valves, 94.6% of all answers were correct. Also, the most common procedures in which the prophylaxis antibiotic was distinguished to be necessary were periodontal surgery, scaling, dental extraction and using subgingival cord, respectively. More than half of the dentists (65.8%) had chosen amoxicillin as a prophylactic antibiotic. Mean knowledge score was 38.77±12.4.

Conclusion: Results of the present study showed that the knowledge of dentists about prescribing antibiotics for prevention of bacterial endocarditis is relatively low. It was also found that the level of knowledge decreases by passing time from graduation.

H. Dargahi, J. Saraji, J. Sadr, G. Sadri,
Volume 22, Issue 4 (1-2010)

Background and Aims: There are several risk factors in dentistry professional environment. Carelessness about occupational health regulation endangers dentist's life. Erconomics in dentistry is a scientific approach which introduces the latest ergonomic principles in dental profession. It discusses about physical and mental stresses. Ergonomic programs eliminate dentist physical and mental challenges and provide practical solution to establish efficient and comforting environment.

Materials and Methods: This study reviewed the role and effectiveness of Ergonomics in dental profession. We used related journals, books and ergonomics websites to write this article.

Conclusion: Many of researchers believe that awkward body posture and low movement are the sources of occupational disorders. Therefore, knowledge of ergonomics risk factors in dental office design is very important. Dentist's body posture and dental equipment evaluations are important factors in dental ergonomics. The most logical approach to design dental equipment for utilizing ergonomics principles is consideration of the dentist posture and type of movements and activities. In conclusion, dentists should be informed about dental ergonomics regulation and its different aspects. Furthermore, academic developments and research projects can be useful in this area.

S. Yaghobee , V. Esmaeili ,
Volume 23, Issue 2 (10-2010)

Background and Aims: Musculoskeletal disorders in dentists due to abnormal postures may result in economic and health problems. To prevent these problems, the working posture of dental students should be assessed and corrected in dental procedures. This study determine these problems and the effect of training courses on them by Rapid Entire Body Assessment method (REBA).

Materials and Methods: The posture of 69 students were assessed by REBA before and after of the “Ergonomic principles in dentistry” course. The subjects which were used in the training course were based on the previous studies on this issue. The REBA scores were assessed by SPSS software using Paired T-test.

Results: The results showed that the students’ posture should be corrected. Postures of 94.2% of students were in moderate and high risk level which needed to be corrected. The worst working positions were during surgery, endodontic and pediatric dentistry procedures. Although the REBA scores before and after training course were statistically different (P<0.05), the training did not improve the posture of students remarkably.

Conclusion: The students’ working postures should be improved. One-day ergonomic principles course improved the working posture of students but it was not sufficient. More training and instructions are needed to have a good working position in dental procedures.

A. Jafari, M. Amir Soltani, B. Golestan, N. Bahrami,
Volume 23, Issue 4 (1-2011)

Background and Aims: Fissure sealant therapy is a national program in elementary schools in Iran. Therefore, evaluation of the parents' knowledge and attitude is necessary to improve the program.
Materials and Methods: In this cross-sectional and descriptive-analytic study, Iranian students were chosen in a randomized cluster manner. The questionnaires were filled-out by students' parents to evaluate their general information, knowledge, and attitude. Moreover, students were examined for having any fissure-sealed teeth. Data were collected and analyzed by multiple logistic regression tests.
Results: 414 boy students and their parents were participated in this study. 57.6% of parents knew that fissure sealant prevents the caries and 44.5% believed that fissure sealant is important to prevent caries. However, only 8.9% of children had fissure sealant. Parents' knowledge was significantly related to the source of oral health information and oral health education. Regular dental visits and high level education was effective in increasing the knowledge about sealant therapy. There was a significant relation between parents' attitude toward fissure sealant and level of education, oral health education and numbers and times of dental visit (P<0.001). There were a significant relation between tooth sealing and parents' oral health information.
Conclusion: Regular dental visits and oral health education have positive role in parent's knowledge and attitude and practice. So parents must be encouraged to have regular dental visit and dentists must be emphasized to give them necessary education. School is the best place for giving proper information to parents.

Mh. Hoseini, Gh. Sharifzadeh, T. Khazaie,
Volume 24, Issue 2 (4-2011)

Background and Aims: Occupational burnout is a psychological syndrome resulting from continuous tensions which causes absence, conflict, job changing, etc. In spite of much effort done in optimizing the work conditions and satisfying the employed persons, the dentists still suffer from this incident. The purpose of this study was to determine the degree of occupational burnout in Birjand dentists and to provide an approach.
Materials and Methods: In this descriptive-analytical study by the census method, 38 dentists were investigated using Maslach questionnaire. Average values were compared with chi-square and comparison among the groups was performed by Tukey test using SPSS software. P≤0.05 was considered as the level of significance.
Results: In this study, there were 68.4% men and 31.6% women with average age of 37.9 ±7.6 years and average work experience of 12.5±7.3 years, 15.8% single and 84.2% married. Frequency of exhaustion, intense depersonalization, and intense feeling of being unsuccessful was 21.1%, 81.6%, and 100%, respectively. There were no significant differences between occupation burnout dimensions and the other variable, such as gender, sports, marital status, and workday hours (P>0.05).
Conclusion: Protection of this stratum, providing educational programs and creating job variations are necessary for optimizing the work environment. Future studies with more sample size are suggested to determine the effect of factors.

Simin Zahra Mohebbi, Mehri Esfandiyar,
Volume 24, Issue 4 (1-2012)


Background and Aims: Evaluation of the training is a principle for successful education. This study evaluated the effect of the theoretical course of community oral health on knowledge, attitude and self-reported practice of preventive dentistry in dental students at Tehran University of Medical Sciences and assessed the students' satisfaction from the course.

Materials and Methods: The intervention group comprised the forth-year students of Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Dental School and the controls were the forth year students of Shahid Beheshti Medical University. The questionnaire included questions on backgrounds, knowledge, attitude and practice of students towards preventive dentistry, and students' satisfaction from the course. The intervention was 17 weekly sessions (hours) of the community oral health course. The sum of scores for questions on backgrounds, knowledge, attitude and practice were calculated and changes were analyzed by General Linear Model.

Results: The mean baseline knowledge score in the intervention group was 16.9 (SD=4.0) and for the control group 16.3 (SD=3.5). Corresponding figures were 23.7 (SD=3.4) and 17 (SD=3.3) after intervention. General linear model showed the intervention to be successful in increasing the students' knowledge scores on preventive dentistry (P<0.0001). Most students (92%) were satisfied with learning several new items during the course.

Conclusion: The students' knowledge was successfully increased by passing the theoretical course of community oral health delivered by teacher-centered method of lecture. Student-centered methods may help in changing the students' attitude and practice of preventive dentistry.

Mohamad Reza Khami, Ensieh Akhgari, Anahita Moscowchi, Reza Yazdani, Simin Zahra Mohebbi, Afsaneh Pakdaman, Samane Razeghi,
Volume 25, Issue 1 (4-2012)

Background and Aims: The aim of the present study was to investigate self-perceived need to learn practice management and self reported knowledge in this regard among dentists.

Materials and Methods: A group of five academic staff members of Community Oral Health Department (Tehran Dental School) and four dentists formed an expert panel to develop the content of the course. This group developed a list of topics related to principles of successful dental practice. To investigate the necessity of educating the topics and self-assessed knowledge of the topics, a questionnaire was designed and administered to 55 volunteer dentists. Forty six dentists completed the questionnaire. T-test and Chi-square test were used for statistical analyses.

Results: Totally more than two-third of the dentists believed that a huge need exists for education of all the topics. The corresponded figure for such topics as ergonomics and medical emergencies was about 90%. About 80% of the dentists felt that they had a vast knowledge of safety and infection control. On the other hand, 54.3% of them reported weak knowledge regarding professional rules and regulations. Self-reported educational need and knowledge of the dentists did not show significant association with their age, gender, and work experience

Conclusion: The dentists believed in the necessity of educating such topics and evaluated their knowledge as deficient in these areas. This shows the necessity of developing courses on these topics.

Fahime Tabatabaei,
Volume 25, Issue 1 (4-2012)

Dentistry has been a field dominated by a constant improvement of synthetic biomaterials. Tissue engineering of tooth is coming to change the panel of the dental materials such as restorative materials and implants. Certainly, it is the largest transition in history of dental materials science in terms of accepting this new and exciting technology. The objective of this article is to present various implications of tissue engineering in different fields of dentistry. To achieve this goal, a review of the literature was carried out by using Medline database to search topics including "dental stem cells", "teeth tissue engineering", "regenerative dentistry", "oral surgery", "periodontal regeneration" and "regenerative endodontics". These searches were limited to articles published after the year 2000. On the basis of our literature review, we have found that although there are significant challenges in oral tissues engineering, engineered tissues will find many applications in dentistry within the next few years.

Alireza Choobineh, Masoud Neghab, Jafar Hasanzade, Reza Rostami,
Volume 25, Issue 4 (1-2013)

Background and Aims: This study was conducted to assess the psychological health status of dentists in Shiraz city.

Materials and Methods: In this cross-sectional study, subjects consisted of 106 dentists and 94 general practitioners (comparison group) from private and public clinics in Shiraz city. Subjects were requested to complete the standard general health questionnaire and a questionnaire on demographic variables. The data were analyzed by appropriate statistical tests. Chi-Square test and independent sample t-test were used to compare demographic and occupational variables of both groups. The questionnaires were scored and the overall score of each individual determined his/her psychological health status. Means of GHQ scores of both groups were compared using statistical tests.

Results: Both groups were similar in all demographic variables, except for age. The mean total score of GHQ-28 for both dentists (17.9) and physicians (16.34) groups were significantly lower than the cut-off point value of 23 (P <0.01). The means of scores for somatic problems, depression, anxiety and insomnia as well as unusual social performance scales were significantly different between both groups (P<0.05). A significant positive association was found between GHQ total score and job tenure.

Conclusion: Our findings revealed that psychological health status of dentists was poorer than that of physicians. Additionally, dentists' scores were significantly different from those of their counterparts in all GHQ sub-scales.

Omid Aminian, Zahra Banafsheh Alemohammad, Khosro Sadeghniiat Haghighi,
Volume 26, Issue 2 (5-2013)

Background and Aims: Regarding the diversity of reported low- back pain among dentists in different countries and lack of control group in most of the previous studies, the purpose of this study was to compare low- back pain and related risk factors between male general dentists and pharmacists to determine the relation between dentistry and development of low back pain.

Materials and Methods: In this cross-sectional study, 261 male dentists were compared with 193 male pharmacists as a control group with Standardized Nordic Questionnaire (low back section). Subjects were at least one year in clinical practice after becoming qualified and did not suffer from connective tissue diseases and history of a traumatic event causing fracture in spinal column. The data were analyzed by Chi- square, T-test and logistic regression analyses.

Results: The prevalence of low back pain in the past 12 months was 54.8% in male dentists and 36.3% in male pharmacists (P=.001). Logistic regression analyses, adjustmenting for occupation, age, body mass index (BMI), smoking, working years and working hours per week, revealed that there was a significant association between being a dentist and having low- back pain (OR=2.54, P=0.001).

 Conclusion: Dentistry as a profession in male gender is associated with low back pain, independent of age, body mass index (BMI), smoking, working years and working hours per week.

Mehdi Jafarzadeh Samani, Maryam Hajiahmadi, Samira Yousefi, Elham Sadat Binande,
Volume 26, Issue 2 (5-2013)

Background and Aims: Successful pediatric dentistry depends not only on the dentist's technical skills, but also on his ability to acquire and maintain a child's cooperation. The correction of dentist’ action in this area affects the view of parents and increases the quality of dental services. The objective of this study was to evaluate the attitudes of general dentists toward methods of controlling pediatrics’ behavior in Isfahan.

Materials and Methods: This study is descriptive, analytic, and cross-sectional. For this research, 100 general dentists of Isfahan city were selected with simple random sampling technique and were asked to complete the questionnaire which was included four different management techniques. The data were analyzed with t-test, P earson’s correlation , ANOVA and Kruskal-Wallis.

Results: The methods accepted by dentists were Tell-Show-Do (4.0 ± 0.5), Voice control (3.5 ± 0.4), active restraint (3.0 ± 0.5) and Hand-Over-Mouth (2.9 ± 0.5) respectively. The mean score of female dentists’ attitudes was more toward the method of active restraint and less toward Hand-Over-Mouth technique. Also the average score of middle aged dentists’ attitudes toward Voice Control method was less than young dentists and toward Hand-Over-Mouth was higher. The general dentists with more number of pediatric patients had less consent on the method of Hand-Over-Mouth (P=0.004) and active restraint (P=0.034).

Conclusion: There were significant correlation between attitude of general dentists toward behavior management techniques with age, gender, clinical experience and the number of pediatric patients. General dentists have fewer tendencies to aggressive behavior management techniques.

Neda Babaee, Arash Poorsattar Bejeh Mir, Hamed Serajpoor,
Volume 26, Issue 4 (1-2014)

  Background and Aims: Occurrence of medical emergencies in dental offices is not uncommon. The most important and the first step in controlling the medical emergencies is the ability to provide basic life support which needs knowledge, experience and equipments. The aim of this study was to investigate the knowledge of dentists relating to the management of medical emergencies in dental office and their willingness towards holding related educational workshops.

  Materials and Methods: This analytic cross-sectional research was accomplished in Babol among 132 general and specialist dentists in 2010. A validated questionnaire (Knowledge and attitudes of reliability: Cronbach's α value 79% and 84% respectively) consisting of 17 questions about knowledge (score of 14-17: excellent, 11-14: good, 8-11 moderate and less than 8: poor), three questions about attitude and demographic characteristics was distributed. Data were analyzed using t-test, X2 and Pearson correlation statistics using SPSS.

  Results: 119 dentists (91.9%) filled out the questionnaire. The average age was 38.6 ( ± 7.5) years with 84 (70.6%) male and 35 (29.4%) female individuals. The average score of knowledge was 9.31 ( ± 2.31) out of 17 points which was negatively correlated to the graduation year (r=-0.43) and age of dentists (r=-0.3). 94% were agreed with workshops and 75% were agreed with equipment of office and emergency kit and 84.9% were not satisfied with the academic education in that field.

  Conclusion: Knowledge of dentists in Babol was not sufficient in the field of medical emergencies which needs intervention for improving and updating by means of holding workshops and continuing education program.

Mojgan Alaeddini, Shahroo Etemad- Moghadam,
Volume 27, Issue 2 (6-2014)

  Morality and ethics constitute fundamental principles of professional, educational and investigational aspects of medicine and all its branches, including dentistry. There are specific considerations in dental research which could significantly affect the design and progress of scientific projects performed in this field. The aim of the current study was to present an overview of ethical concepts governing dental research and to provide examples of common issues raised during dentistry-related investigations. Establishment of human tooth banks in major research and training centers is suggested to enhance the process of conducting more substantial research in dentistry.

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