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Ma. Behnaz , F.   Behnaz , M. Mohammadzadeh ,
Volume 17, Issue 1 (4-2004)

Statement of Problem: Hepatitis C is a relatively common infection which can be transmitted through accidental inoculation consequently dentists are highly at the risk of exposure to this virus.
Purpose: The aim of this study was to determine prevalence of Hepatitis C among the dentists of Yazd and to evaluate their knowledge about the existing ways for the transmission and prevention of this infection.
Materials and Methods: In this descriptive- analytic study which was performed periodically (2002), the sera of all dentists practicing in Yazd were tested (104 samples) in the laboratory of Yazd blood transfusion organization initially by 1st generation of Elisa for Anti HCV followed by Riba on positive samples to confirm the results. Meanwhile a questionnaire assessing their knowledge about hepatitis was completed the by the dentists. Data were analyzed by ANOVA and t test.
Results: None of the one hundred and four samples of sera were positive for Anti HCV. Mean score of their knowledge was 14.80 (of 20). The knowledge of 92.1% of them was at moderate to high level. No significant difference was observed between Yazd's dentists knowledge about hepatitis C in different age, gender and length of professional experience groups.
Conclusion: According to this study, the absence of HCV among the dentists of Yazd is mainly attributed to the low prevalence of HCV infection among general population, though it can also be an indicative of the knowledge and excellent performance of the dentists to prevent the transmission of infection through blood and saliva.
M. Hashemipour, Mr. Korki,
Volume 21, Issue 3 (12-2008)

Background and Aim: Infective endocarditis is a rare disease resulted in mortality and morbidity in 10-80% of patients. The purpose of present study was to investigate the knowledge of guidelines on antibiotic prophylaxis for bacterial endocarditis in a group of Iranian dentists.

Materials and Methods: This was a descriptive study in which the population under study was 205 who were participated in the 47th international congress of dentistry (Tehran-Spring 2007) and they were chosen by census sampling methods. Nameless questionnaires were designed and were given to the dentists to complete. The t-test, χ² and spearman with the SPSS 13.5 program were used in the data analysis. P<0.05 was considered as the level of significance.

Results: Regarding to the prescribing of prophylactic antibiotic for patients with prosthetic cardiac valves, 94.6% of all answers were correct. Also, the most common procedures in which the prophylaxis antibiotic was distinguished to be necessary were periodontal surgery, scaling, dental extraction and using subgingival cord, respectively. More than half of the dentists (65.8%) had chosen amoxicillin as a prophylactic antibiotic. Mean knowledge score was 38.77±12.4.

Conclusion: Results of the present study showed that the knowledge of dentists about prescribing antibiotics for prevention of bacterial endocarditis is relatively low. It was also found that the level of knowledge decreases by passing time from graduation.

A. Taghizadeh Ganji , A. Jafari, N. Poorgholi, H. Iranizadeh,
Volume 22, Issue 3 (12-2009)

Background and Aim: School health workers have an important role in education and prevention of common oral and dental diseases. An organized program can be helpful in training and shaping the proper behavior. This study has evaluated the knowledge, attitude and practice of schools health workers in Tabriz about oral and dental health in 2007-2008.
Materials and Methods: This cross-sectional and descriptive study was performed in primary schools in Tabriz. Questionnaires were sent to the schools that had health workers. Levels of the knowledge, attitude and practice of the health workers who had answered this questionnaire were evaluated. SPSS software and independent T-Test and Paired- Sample T-Test were used for analyzing the results.
Results: Fifty eight out of 64 school health workers were women. Mean age of school health workers was 45 years. Forty four of school health workers had passed special course about oral health and dental health. 49 of them had passed special educational course the mean of acquired knowledge score was 6.77 out of 10 and women's scores were significantly higher. Also women had more work experience than men. The mean of acquired attitude and practice scores were 7.42 and 7.14 out of 10, respectively.
Conclusion: Findings show that performing of the educational courses during work and experience has an effective role in the scales of the health workers. Progress in this situation can be achieved by retraining programs and accessible pamphlets.

A. Jafari, Mr. Khami, R. Yazdani, M Mohammadi,
Volume 22, Issue 4 (1-2010)

Background and Aims: The objective of the present study was to investigate knowledge and attitude of senior dental students towards HIV/AIDS. Its result could help in promotion of education.

Materials and Methods: This educational research was carried out in two state dental schools in Tehran. The senior dental students in Tehran and Shaheed Beheshti dental schools were asked to fill in a self-administered questionnaire regarding their age, gender, parents' job, knowledge and attitudes towards treatment of patients with HIV/AIDS in Autumn semester 2007. Fifty five dental students (83%) including 27% male and 73% female in Shaheed Beheshti and fifty five dental students (85%) including 34% male and 66% female in Tehran dental schools were participated. The score for knowledge and attitude of the students were calculated separately. The data were analyzed using Independent sample t-test.

Results: The mean percentage of knowledge and attitude scores were 76.5% (at rang 1-3) and 50% (at range 1-5), respectively. Nearly all of the students believed that all patients should be considered as HIV positive in dental practice, while 49% preferred to refer HIV positive patients. Knowledge and attitude of students were not significantly associated with the gender and knowing HIV positive person (P>0.05).

Conclusion: There is a need to improve knowledge and attitudes of dental students towards HIV/AIDS. It is suggested to emphasize on this subject in dental schools curriculum in Iran.

A. Jafari, M. Amir Soltani, B. Golestan, N. Bahrami,
Volume 23, Issue 4 (1-2011)

Background and Aims: Fissure sealant therapy is a national program in elementary schools in Iran. Therefore, evaluation of the parents' knowledge and attitude is necessary to improve the program.
Materials and Methods: In this cross-sectional and descriptive-analytic study, Iranian students were chosen in a randomized cluster manner. The questionnaires were filled-out by students' parents to evaluate their general information, knowledge, and attitude. Moreover, students were examined for having any fissure-sealed teeth. Data were collected and analyzed by multiple logistic regression tests.
Results: 414 boy students and their parents were participated in this study. 57.6% of parents knew that fissure sealant prevents the caries and 44.5% believed that fissure sealant is important to prevent caries. However, only 8.9% of children had fissure sealant. Parents' knowledge was significantly related to the source of oral health information and oral health education. Regular dental visits and high level education was effective in increasing the knowledge about sealant therapy. There was a significant relation between parents' attitude toward fissure sealant and level of education, oral health education and numbers and times of dental visit (P<0.001). There were a significant relation between tooth sealing and parents' oral health information.
Conclusion: Regular dental visits and oral health education have positive role in parent's knowledge and attitude and practice. So parents must be encouraged to have regular dental visit and dentists must be emphasized to give them necessary education. School is the best place for giving proper information to parents.

Simin Zahra Mohebbi, Reza Yazdani, Seyedeh Tahereh Mirmolaei, Zeinab Tartar, Atoosa Janeshin,
Volume 26, Issue 4 (1-2014)

  Background and Aims : As midwives are in frequent contact with pregnant mothers, they may play a key role in their oral health care (OHC). In this study, we aimed to evaluate the effect of an educational program on Tehran University of Medical Sciences midwifery students’ knowledge and preparedness on OHC in pregnant mothers. Materials and Methods: The midwifery third year students of central campus (n=29) were randomly selected as intervention group and their counterparts in Hemmat campus (n=33) as control. Students in both groups were asked to fill in a questionnaire included 8 demographic question and 18 OHC knowledge and one question on their preparedness to implement OHC. Then the educational intervention was implemented using lecture, demonstration of the correct methods of brushing and flossing on the models and role play method. The follow- up questionnaire was delivered 3 months later. Data were analyzed using Mann-Whitney test, T-test, Chi-Square test, ANOVA and Regression by SPSS software.

  Results: The mean OHC in pregnancy knowledge score in intervention and control group were 26.7 and 24.8 at baseline which were changed into 48.5 and 29.1, respectively (P<0.001). Among the students 52.6% in the intervention group and 36.4% in the control group reported very high preparedness to implement OHC in pregnancy. These figures were 68.2% and 41.7% in the post-test.

  Conclusion: The promising findings of this educational intervention comprising of both student and teacher-centered methods speak for possibility of improving these students knowledge and preparedness and implies on the necessity to incorporate the related course in midwifery education.

Neda Babaee, Arash Poorsattar Bejeh Mir, Hamed Serajpoor,
Volume 26, Issue 4 (1-2014)

  Background and Aims: Occurrence of medical emergencies in dental offices is not uncommon. The most important and the first step in controlling the medical emergencies is the ability to provide basic life support which needs knowledge, experience and equipments. The aim of this study was to investigate the knowledge of dentists relating to the management of medical emergencies in dental office and their willingness towards holding related educational workshops.

  Materials and Methods: This analytic cross-sectional research was accomplished in Babol among 132 general and specialist dentists in 2010. A validated questionnaire (Knowledge and attitudes of reliability: Cronbach's α value 79% and 84% respectively) consisting of 17 questions about knowledge (score of 14-17: excellent, 11-14: good, 8-11 moderate and less than 8: poor), three questions about attitude and demographic characteristics was distributed. Data were analyzed using t-test, X2 and Pearson correlation statistics using SPSS.

  Results: 119 dentists (91.9%) filled out the questionnaire. The average age was 38.6 ( ± 7.5) years with 84 (70.6%) male and 35 (29.4%) female individuals. The average score of knowledge was 9.31 ( ± 2.31) out of 17 points which was negatively correlated to the graduation year (r=-0.43) and age of dentists (r=-0.3). 94% were agreed with workshops and 75% were agreed with equipment of office and emergency kit and 84.9% were not satisfied with the academic education in that field.

  Conclusion: Knowledge of dentists in Babol was not sufficient in the field of medical emergencies which needs intervention for improving and updating by means of holding workshops and continuing education program.

Sayed Mohamad Razavi, Behzad Zolfaghari, Bahareh Tahani, Mostafa Emami Doost, Mehrdad Forohande,
Volume 27, Issue 1 (4-2014)

  Background and Aims : Dentists have usually a critical role in diagnosing oral cancer lesions in their early stages. In this study we aimed to assess the senior dental student’ and dentists’ knowledge, attitude and behaviors regarding oral cancer in Isfahan.

  Materials and Methods: A valid and reliable self-administered questionnaire was designed to assess the current practice, knowledge and attitude of general dentists working in Isfahan-Iran and senior dental students regarding oral cancer lesions. The questionnaire was consisted of questions to assess the knowledge and attitude regarding diagnosis, risk factors and prognosis of oropharyngeal cancerous lesions. The frequencies of answers to questions in sections of practice and attitude (just for dentists) and sum score of questions in knowledge section were calculated and compared using statistical analysis regarding age, sex, duration of experience and practice setting ) p ublic/private) of participants. Data were analyzed using ANOVA, chi-square, linear regression and logistic regression.

  Results: 139 questionnaires from dentists and 57 questionnaires from students were returned. The mean score of dentists’ knowledge was 5.41 out of 13 (CI95%=5.03-7.79 ). Significant differences were observed among dentists regarding their experience (P=0.001). Only one fifth of the dentists in our survey reported to perform oral cancer examination for all of their patients in age of 40 and above and just about 34% of dentists gained acceptable level of knowledge. Among senior dental students, the status of knowledge was better as about 58% of them gained the level of acceptance (P=0.01).

  Conclusion: Although dentists were willing to follow the diagnostic protocol for oral cancer, they were mostly unsatisfied with the level of their knowledge. Therefore, this study highlights the need for educational planning and training activities in general dentists with regard to the risk factors and early detection of oral cancers.

Mohamadreza Khami, Arezo Ebne Ahmadi, Mina Ahmadian, Samaneh Razeghi, Reza Yazdani,
Volume 27, Issue 3 (9-2014)


  Background and Aims: Tobacco kills 5 million people worldwide annually, according to the Health Ministry reaches this number is about 70,000 people a year in Iran. Dental professionals are in a unique position to promote smoking cessation due to the opportunity for regular interaction with their patients. The aim of this study was to investigate knowledge, attitudes, and skills of dental students at Tehran and Shahid Beheshti dental schools towards tobacco cessation counseling in dental office.

  Materials and Methods: In this cross-sectional study, the target group was dental students at Tehran and Shahid Beheshti dental schools, and the sampling method was census. A questionnaire on the knowledge, attitudes, and skills towards tobacco cessation counseling in dental practice was administered to the students (n=93). Data were analyzed using T-test.

  Results: The response rate was 100% (93 students participate in this program and all of them filled the questionnaire). The average score of knowledge at Tehran and Shahid Beheshti dental schools was 17.5 and 18.4, respectively (P=0.09), the average score of attitudes was 33.5 and 33.1, respectively (P=0.80). There were no significant differences between the two dental schools in these parts. The average score of skill was 11.9 and 16.6, respectively. The differences between the students of two dental schools in skill were significant (P=0.002).

  Conclusion: Although the attitude of dental students at Tehran and Shahid Beheshti schools towards tobacco cessation counseling seemed to be fair, some deficiencies existed in their knowledge and skill. Dental education programs should be implemented properly in this field.

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Volume 27, Issue 4 (1-2015)

  Background and Aims: Oral health is an important issue in public health with a great impact on individuals’ general health status. A good access to oral healthcare services and a good knowledge of it play a key role in the oral disease prevention. A better health attitude and practice require a better knowledge. The aims of this study was to evaluate the oral health knowledge among the International students branch (Kish) of Shiraz University of Medical Sciences in 2011-12.

  Materials and Methods: 159 pre-clinical students in medicine (54 students), dentistry (69 students) and pharmacy (36 students) participated in this research. A standard questionnaire was used as the main tool of research to evaluate the attitude and knowledge of students about the oral health. Data were analyzed using Chi-square test.

  Results: According to the results, dental students had the best level of knowledge and pharmacy students had a better knowledge level compared to the medical students. The results also showed a significant relationship between students’ oral health knowledge and their field and duration of study and the place of their secondary school (P<0.05), while no significant relationship was observed between their oral health knowledge and their gender or their parents’ educational level (P>0.05).

  Conclusion: The results showed that the students at the International Branch of Shiraz University of Medical Sciences had a relatively good knowledge of oral health. Students’ knowledge level can be improved by providing students with educational materials, organized workshops and seminars.

Sayed Mohsen Hosseini, Fateme Bagheri, Faranak Farahmand, Asiye Heydari, Elahe Khorasani,
Volume 29, Issue 4 (1-2017)

Background and Aims: Nowadays, oral cancer is considered one of the most important diseases related to oral health. The objective of the present study was to determine the dental students’ knowledge in Isfahan about oral cancer and the comparison of the level of students' knowledge in different years of education.

Materials and Methods: The present study was a cross-sectional-analytical one conducted in 2013. The population of study included the dental students of private and state University of Isfahan which 255 students were randomly selected. The data were collected using questionnaire and were then analyzed using SPSS software program and Kruskal-Wallis and Mann-Whitney.

Results: From private and public dental schools in Isfahan, 56% and 44% of dental students were involved. Regarding performing routine clinical oral examination, 81% of the participants answered positively, which showed no significant difference among the years of education of the participants (P=0.116). Regarding the examination of patients with oral lesions, 46% of them answered positively, which the difference between the years of education was highly significant (P≤0.001).

Conclusion: The findings of the research indicated that the level of knowledge of dental students of Isfahan city regarding the detection of oral lesions was not sufficient. Although, the students did not perform common examinations for exploring oral cancer, they did not have sufficient knowledge regarding some of the risk factors and oral lesions related to cancer. Therefore, it is necessary that a comprehensive curriculum be developed in this regard for their education.

Nasim Seyfi, Mahsa Valizadeh,
Volume 29, Issue 4 (1-2017)

Background and Aims: Traumatic dental injuries (TDIs) are of the most common dental problems in children and adolescents, which usually occur in the anterior segment and have a significant role in patient’s physical and psychological health. Immediate intervention for damaged teeth can elevate the success rate of treatment in TDI. Thus, general dentists’ knowledge and their effective intervention in TDI are important factors in prognosis of traumatized teeth. The objective of this study was to assess the general dentists’ knowledge and awareness regarding the diagnosis and management of traumatic dental injuries.

Materials and Methods: In this cross-sectional study, the questionnaire data were collected from 130 general dentists, including the demographic data and general dentists’ knowledge about TDIs. The data were analyzed using the Student t-test and Analysis of Variance (ANOVA), Spearman’s and Pearson’s correlation coefficient.

Results: The mean score of general dentists’ knowledge was 8.5 ± 1.5 (total score:10) and it was the same between both males and females (P=0.083). Dentists’ work place does not have any influence in their knowledge (P=0.133). Also, there was no statically significant relationship between the age, job experience and dentists’ knowledge (P=0.805). The relationship between the frequency of TDI managed cases and dentists’ knowledge was not significant (P=0.507).

Conclusion: Considering that the overall knowledge of general dentists regarding the management of TDI was sufficient, it could be a good opportunity in treating these injuries. As TDI is a developing science, it is important to motivate general dentists being up to date regarding this matter.

Samaneh Razeghi, Mahdia Gholami, Simin Zahra Mohebbi, Mahgol Mashayekhi,
Volume 30, Issue 1 (6-2017)

Background and Aims: Trauma to the permanent and deciduous incisors is an undesirable common event in childhood. Proper immediate management of injured teeth is depended on the knowledge of unprofessional people, including teachers, who are usually present at the scene prior to dental treatment. The aim of this study was to assess the knowledge and self-reported practice of primary school teachers on the emergency management of traumatic dental injuries (TDIs) in Arak.

Materials and Methods: In this cross-sectional study, 624 primary school teachers were enrolled in census in Arak. An anonymous questionnaire containing demographic data, the history of previous exposure to traumatic dental injuries, teachers’ knowledge regarding emergency management of TDIs and their practice towards TDIs was used. Questionnaires were distributed among all participants and then were collected on the same day. Descriptive statistics and linear regression were performed to analyze the data.

Results: A total of 292 completed questionnaires (response rate 46.8%) were collected. The mean score of knowledge was 2.65±1.69 out of 10. The mean score of self-reported practice was 3.46±2.04 out of 8. Regarding the demographic variables, knowledge had a significant relationship with the education (P<0.001). No significant relationships were observed between the self-reported practice and demographic variables. The correlation coefficients between the knowledge scores and the practice scores of teachers was 0.2.

Conclusion: This study revealed that insufficient knowledge exists among primary school teachers on emergency management of TDIs. Furthermore, a high percentage of respondents enjoy a significant deficiency regarding favorable practice encountering TDIs.

Simin Zahra Mohebbi, Katayoun Sargeran, Tahereh Hejrati,
Volume 30, Issue 2 (8-2017)

Background and Aims: Disabled individuals are involved with several oral health problems. The aim of this study was to assess the knowledge and perspective of dentists towards oral health promotion in disabled individuals.
Materials and Methods: Dentists participating in the fifty-fourth International Congress of Iranian Dental Association in 1392 in Tehran were invited. A valid and reliable questionnaire including the information about age, gender, city of practice, the working experience with the disabled was distributed. There were also 13 questions on knowledge and one question about the importance of training in the field of “oral health promotion of the disabled” in this questionnaire. The data were analyzed by linear regression model by SPSS 18 software.
Results: 117 questionnaires were collected and evaluated. The mean age was 35.5 (10.1) years. Among the participants, 53.8% were male and 46.2% were female. Average score of knowledge was 6.5 of the maximum attainable 13. Among the dentists, 60% believed that receiving education on oral health promotion for the disabled is important. Liner regression model which evaluated the effect of confounding factors showed that aging led to reduction in dentists' knowledge of oral health of the disabled. Furthermore, working experience with the disabled led to the increase in knowledge. Dentists who had previously treated a disable individual were more interested in receiving related training.
Conclusion: Knowledge of dentists in the field of oral health promotion of the disabled is not desirable while most dentists recognize the need for training. This issue emphasizes on the need for a broader educational effort.

Molook Torabi Parizi, Mahsa Kalantari, Farshad Ghavidel,
Volume 31, Issue 2 (9-2018)

Background and Aims: Cancer is the 3rd cause of death after heart disease and injuries in Iran. Radiotherapy and chemotherapy are the most effective procedures in cancer therapy, but their side effects are still unknown for many patients. The main goal of this study was to evaluate the patients’ knowledge with head and neck cancer regarding the complications of radiotherapy and chemotherapy.
Materials and Methods: This descriptive-analytical research was based on the information extracted from personal questionnaires and files of cancer patients who referred to the centers of Kerman University of Medical Sciences during a 6 months period in 2017. The data were analyzed by chi-square test at the significance level of 0.05.
Results: Our findings showed that most of the patients (76.48%) had low information level. There was no statistically significant association between the knowledge with demographic variables (P>0.05). However, patients with chronic disease had higher level of information. Only 10% of patients had received information by their physicians.
Conclusion: It seems there is not effective education regarding the rated radiotherapy and chemotherapy complications, because their knowledge was not in acceptable level. Considering the importance of this issue, it is necessary to perform educational program to improve patients' ability and skills to cope whit the chemotherapy and radiotherapy complications and their side effects.

Maliheh Karame, Masoud Moradi, Farank Shafiee,
Volume 31, Issue 4 (1-2019)

Background and Aims: Trauma to primary and permanent teeth caused post-traumatic complications affecting the health of teeth and led to specific problems in treatment. As prognosis of trauma has closed correlation with immediate and correct management after occurrence of the incident and the health educators are the first people in contact with children in this places, their awareness of how to deal with these injuries plays an important role in prevention and treatment. This study aimed to evaluate the knowledge of health educators in confrontation with dental injuries in primary schools of Sanandaj in 2018.
Materials and Methods: In this cross-sectional study, all of fifty-nine health teachers in primary schools of Sanandaj were identified after referring to education centre. The questionnaires were provided to the school health teachers after referring to schools and after completing questionnaires, collected data were analyzed. In order to test the research hypotheses, Multiple regression, Non-parametric tests of spearman correlation coefficient, Mann-Whitney and kruskal-wallis were utilized using SPSS software version 20.
Results: The mean knowledge score of fifty-nine health educators was 14.02±3.41 and knowledge score of females was higher. There was no significant statistical correlation between knowledge score, age,
work experience and education level (P>0.05). In this study, the knowledge score of experienced teachers in confrontation with injured persons and health educators who attended related training courses, was higher than others but this difference was not statistically significant (P>0.05).
Conclusion: The results indicated inadequate knowledge regarding emergency management of dental trauma. Thus strategies to improve the teachers’ knowledge about dental trauma can positively influence their knowledge and attitudes toward emergency management of dental trauma.

Nasim Seyfi, Milad Nodehghan,
Volume 31, Issue 4 (1-2019)

Background and Aims: Tooth decay is still one of the most prevalent pediatric diseases. According to the role of general dentists and importance of first dental visit in prevention, the aim of this study was to evaluate dentist’s knowledge and attitude regarding children’s first dental visit in Gorgan, Iran.
Materials and Methods: In this cross-sectional study, 140 general practitioners participated. In order to assess the level of knowledge, a questionnaire including 2 parts was used as the main tool. Data were analyzed using Mann-Whitney, Kruskal-Wallis and Pearson correlation coefficient.
Results: Our findings revealed that the level of knowledge in both sex was equal (P=0.067). There was no significant relationship between the workplace (P=0.68), age (P=0.77), work experience (P=0.84) and the level of knowledge. Interest of practitioners to get the necessary training about examination and treatment of 0-2 year-old children was medium. 51.17% of dentists, admitted the treatment of 8-12 year-old children. 34.5% of dentists revealed that misbehavior of children during treatment was the main reason for unwillingness to accept treating them. 46.9% of dentists, revealed that the most effective result of child’s dental visit at an early age is increasing parents’ knowledge about prevention of carries in primary dentition.
Conclusion: The results showed that general dental practitioners in this study had a good level of knowledge about the first dental visit. Regarding to their little tendency to treat children, it seems necessary to hold workshops and seminars for better desired motivation in this field.

Shirin Taravati, Parnia Mahootchi,
Volume 32, Issue 4 (1-2020)

Background and Aims: Considering the role of primary teeth in children's dental health and the importance of parental role on children dental health the purpose of this study was to determine the knowledge and practice of parents of 3-9 year-old children regarding to maintaining primary teeth.
Materials and Methods: This cross-sectional descriptive-analytical study was conducted on the parents referring to Ahwaz dental school in 2017. Using a questionnaire, the participants' demographic characteristics, knowledge and performance regarding maintaining of the primary molars were collected. The percentage of correct responses was considered as the level of knowledge and performance. Analysis of K-square and Spearman and Pearson correlation coefficient and T-test were employed to determine the relationship between the participants' knowledge and performance and their demographic variables. The significance level was P<0.05.
Results: 176 parents completed the questionnaire. The mean parental knowledge score was 57.42±7.45
(range 15-75), and the mean practice score was, 9.42±1.86 (range 4-12). No relationship was found between the parents’ age, sex, knowledge, and performance. The knowledge of parents who had a history of referral to the dentist, fewer children (rs=0.428), higher education (rs=0.490) and higher income (r=0.226) was significantly better (P<0.001). Also practice increases with higher awareness of parents (r=0.549) (P<0.001). The parents’ practice was significantly related to the history of referral to the dentist, and having fewer children (rs=0.320), higher education (rs=0.369), and higher income (r=0.253) (P<0.01).
Conclusion: The findings of this study showed that the knowledge and practice of the parents about primary teeth were moderate. Regarding the important role of primary teeth in children's health, increasing the parents’ knowledge on the maintenance of primary teeth is essential.

Ehsan Aliabadi, Esfandiar Keshavarz,
Volume 33, Issue 1 (7-2020)

Background and Aims: The inferior alveolar nerve block (IANB) is the most frequently used technique for mandibular anesthesia. Due to the many factors which can cause its failure, the aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of experience and knowledge in the success rate of IANB technique.
Materials and Methods: : In this study, 115 students of Shiraz Dental school were participated in two groups. One group contained 53 novice students and another group 62 students with one year experience in IANB injection. Each student accomplished injection once and then success or failure of the injection was examined. In order to evaluate the students’ knowledge, each student was asked to fill out a questioner including 6 questions related to the instruction of the injection. Data were then collected, coded, and analyzed by SPSS18 using Chi square with a significant level of 0.05.
Results: The rates of knowledge in novice and experienced group were 71.6% and 86.3%, respectively. The success rates of IANB were 47.1% in novice group and 64.3% in experienced group. The success rates of IANB and knowledge were significantly higher in the experienced group compared with the novice group. (P=0.02 and P=0.01, respectively) There was no significant difference between male and female (P=0.06).
Conclusion: The results showed that knowledge and experience could play an important role in the success rate of IANB technique.

Pegah Palizban, Neda Kargahi, Forouz Keshani,
Volume 33, Issue 2 (8-2020)

Background and Aims: Pre-cancerous lesions of the oral mucosa as important malformation need acceptable knowledge of dentists. The purpose of this study was to determine the knowledge of Isfahan city general dentists about pre-cancerous lesions of oral cavity.
Materials and Methods: This descriptive cross-sectional study based on validated questioner form was performed in 115 general dentists in Isfahan City in 2019, associated with sex and year of graduation from general dentistry course. The mean score was in the range from 0 to14. Data were recorded in Microsoft Excel and then analyzed by SPSS. In order to compare quantitative variables, independent T–Test, One-Way ANOVA and Mann-Whitney was used. P≤0.05 was considered as significant.
Results: The mean age in the participants of: lower than 5 years, between 5-10 years, and more than 10 years of graduation were 28.6±4.9, 30.6±4.0 and 47.9±10 years old, respectively. In total population, the mean score of knowledge was 5.97±2.79. There was not any significant difference between the mean score of knowledge in women when compared to men (5.96±2.99 versus 5.98±2.6; P=0.58). The mean knowledge score in the participants of: lower than 5 years, between 5-10 years, and more than 10 years, of graduation were as follow: 7.8±2.2 versus 5.8±2.9 versus 4.4±2.1, correspondingly (P≤0.05).
Conclusion: For the early diagnosis of pre-cancerous lesions of the oral cavity, retraining program based on oral cavity pathology courses is recommended for the dentists in Isfahan city.

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