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Showing 27 results for Oral Health

J. Ayatollahi , R. Bahrololomi , F. Ayatollahi ,
Volume 18, Issue 3 (5-2005)

Oral health care workers may be exposed to a variety of infectious agents as they carry out their professional responsibilities. Dentists must recognize diseases that are most commonly transmitted in dental offices. Oral health care providers should assess their needs for immunization based on the characteristics of their clinical work setting and own risk-taking profile. Relevant articles in the medical literature were derived from searching Medline database (1966 to present) with key terms immunization, oral health care and dentist. On searching the database, a total of 70 studies were included in this review. Use of vaccines safeguards the health of workers in various type of oral health care delivery settings.
A. Mehri, M. Morowatisharifabad,
Volume 22, Issue 1 (8-2009)

Background and Aim: It is necessary to assess health status for designing and programming about oral health behaviors. In this study the Effectiveness of Health Promotion Model in Predicting oral health among the Students of Islamic Azad University of Sabzevar was examined.

Materials and Methods: This was a descriptive-analytic, cross-sectional study. A random (stratified) sample of 250 university students in Islamic Azad university of Sabzevar, participated in the study. Appropriate instruments were designed to measure the variables of interest based on health promotion model. Reliability and validity of the instruments were examined by a panel of experts and cronbach alpha (N=30,α=0.65-0.81) respectively. The data were analyzed by SPSS 11.5 Statistical Software using Spearman Coefficient, Path analysis based on regression and ANOVA.

Results: The mean of oral health behaviors among students was moderate (19.17±3.91 out of total 36).Statistically significant differences were found in oral health behaviors and the model variables by parent education (P<0.05). The results showed that the model variables were related to oral health behaviors of the students (P<0.05).Self-efficacy,interpersonal influences,positive emotion, perceived barriers and commitment to plan of action as variables of HPM model explained 29% of oral health behaviors among subjects within which self-efficacy was the strongest predictor)β=0.252).

Conclusion: Although the mean of oral health behaviors was moderate among the subjects, but it should be promoted because of their great importance on the individuals' health. It was concluded that the Health Promotion Model may be used as a framework for planning intervention programs in an attempt to improve the oral health behaviors of the university students.

A. Taghizadeh Ganji , A. Jafari, N. Poorgholi, H. Iranizadeh,
Volume 22, Issue 3 (12-2009)

Background and Aim: School health workers have an important role in education and prevention of common oral and dental diseases. An organized program can be helpful in training and shaping the proper behavior. This study has evaluated the knowledge, attitude and practice of schools health workers in Tabriz about oral and dental health in 2007-2008.
Materials and Methods: This cross-sectional and descriptive study was performed in primary schools in Tabriz. Questionnaires were sent to the schools that had health workers. Levels of the knowledge, attitude and practice of the health workers who had answered this questionnaire were evaluated. SPSS software and independent T-Test and Paired- Sample T-Test were used for analyzing the results.
Results: Fifty eight out of 64 school health workers were women. Mean age of school health workers was 45 years. Forty four of school health workers had passed special course about oral health and dental health. 49 of them had passed special educational course the mean of acquired knowledge score was 6.77 out of 10 and women's scores were significantly higher. Also women had more work experience than men. The mean of acquired attitude and practice scores were 7.42 and 7.14 out of 10, respectively.
Conclusion: Findings show that performing of the educational courses during work and experience has an effective role in the scales of the health workers. Progress in this situation can be achieved by retraining programs and accessible pamphlets.

Afsaneh Pakdaman, Parisa Aref,
Volume 25, Issue 1 (4-2012)

Background and Aims: High level of caries was reported in pre-school children at the national level. Due to importance of focusing on high-risk children, this study was carried out to evaluate an oral health promotion program designed for Ameneh orphan center.

Materials and Methods: Two centers were chosen and assigned to intervention (Ameneh orphan center) and comparison (Shobeir orphan center). Dental examination has been carried out using dental mirror and blunt probe under artificial light and dmfs index was recorded. Health promotion program including topical fluoride application after dental treatment as well as power point education session for caregivers was delivered in intervention group. Children in the other center were only received routine dental treatment. Data were analyzed using Mann-Whitney and regression tests.

Results: 79 children in the intervention group and 51 children in comparison group were evaluated in the study. The mean age of children in the intervention group was 4.7 (SD=1.6) and in the comparison group was 4.6 (SD=1.2). The dmfs index in the intervention and comparison groups was 6.86±10.23 and 8.75±12.42 (NS), respectively. The mean dmfs after intervention in the intervention group was 7.93±11.21 and in the control group was 9.88±12.51, which showed no significant difference (P>0.05). Comparison in subgroups showed that the mean dmfs in the group received fluoride varnish in addition to complete dental treatment was significantly less than the comparison group (P<0.05). Controlling the effect of baseline caries and age on the outcome variable with regression analysis showed that the effect of baseline caries should be considered when comparing two groups.

Conclusion: Oral health promotion programs including topical fluoride application can be used in high-risk groups of children.

Siminzahra Mohebbi, Sedigheh Sheikhzadeh, Masoud Bayanzadeh, Azizollah Batebizadeh,
Volume 25, Issue 2 (4-2012)

Background and Aims: The oral impact on daily performance (OIDP) is one of the oral health-related quality of life indices to measure physical, social and mental consequences of the oral health status. This study aimed to evaluate the OIDP index in patients referring to Tehran dental school.

Materials and Methods: Four hundred and ninety nine patients referring to patients' clinic in Dental School of Tehran University of Medical Sciences in spring 2011 participated in this study. They were interviewed for demographic factors including age, gender and level of education, and OIDP index questionnaire before receiving any treatment. Statistical analysis was carried out by means of linear regression modeling.

Results: 85.6% of patients confirmed that they had at least one oral impact on daily performance during the last 6 months. The most prevalent performances affected were eating (50.1%) and smiling and showing teeth without shame (12.8%). The mean OIDP score for the population was 5.6 ranging from 0 to 36. Linear regression modeling controlling for age, gender and years of education revealed that older patients and those with lower education had significantly higher OIDP scores.

Conclusion: The effect of oral health on daily performance was clear. The association among age, education and oral impact on daily performance indicates the need for more comprehensive preventive oral health care for adults with lower educational level.

Imaneh Asgari, Arezo Ebn Ahmady, Mohammad Hossein Khoshnevisan, Faezeh Eslamipour,
Volume 25, Issue 2 (4-2012)

Background and Aims: Normative need assessments should be substituted or integrated by patient-based outcome measures regarding their shortages in health-oriented approach . This study aimed to assess and compare the ability of  an index of oral health-related quality of life measured by Child Oral Health Impact Profile (COHIP) questionnaire and the Aesthetic Component of Index of Orthodontic Treatment Need (AC-IOTN) to identify the normative need to orthodontic treatment using Dental Health Component-IOTN in a sample of the Iranian adolescents.

Materials and Methods: Target population of this cross-sectional analytic study was 597 of the 13 to 18 year-old schoolchildren enrolled in middle and high schools of the city of Isfahan, Iran. They completed the COHIP questionnaire and then were examined by two calibrated trained dentists (agreement coefficient:0.9) to record the DHC grading. The students scored their AC in according to the images of the scale. The association between subjective indicators and clinically defined need were evaluated by the correlation analysis and the statistics for the diagnostic validity of tests.

Results: Of 568 examined students, 16.7% and 2.1% had definite need according to DHC and AC criteria, respectively. 10% of orthodontic patients had perceived distinct impact on their quality of life. The significant association (P=0.001) between the severity of malocclusion and quality of life was at moderate level by AC (R=0.37), but it was not convincing enough by DHC (R=0.16). The specificity of AC to detect the healthy ones showed to be excellent but its low sensitivity disabled the recognition of patients, precisely.

Conclusion: The considered patient-based indices did not meet the competencies to define the orthodontic need in the adolescents, but it could be employed to identify the persons with impaired quality of life and it would probably benefit  the process of prioritization.

Hosein Fallahzadeh, Ahmad Haerian, Nader Bahrami,
Volume 25, Issue 3 (7-2012)

Background and Aims: Increasing demands for health care's services on one hand and limited resources on the other hand brings about pressure over governments to find out a mechanism for fair and appropriate distribution of resources. Economic analysis is one of the appropriate tools for policy making on this priority. The aim of this study was to assess capital and consumption of oral health units of health care centers in Yazd city and comparing it with revenue of these centers and determining of cost effectiveness.
Materials and Methods: In this descriptive cross sectional study, all health care centers of Yazd city with active dentistry department were evaluated.  The data has been extracted from current documents in health care center of county based issued receipts and daily information registers.
Results: Expended cost for providing of oral hygiene services in second half of 2008 in 13 medical health centers of Yazd included active dentistry section was 557.887.500 Rials and revenue to cost ratio was about 34%. The most provided service was related to tooth extraction and the average of tooth restoration in each working day was 0.48.
Conclusion: With attention to low tariffs of dentistry services in medical health centers and paying subsidy to target groups, expenses of oral hygiene are always more than its revenue.

Esa Mohamadi Zeidi, Amir Pakpor Pakpour Haji Agha, Asghar Karbord, Banafshe Mohamadi Zeidi,
Volume 28, Issue 2 (7-2015)

  Background and Aims: Constant contact with dentists, the ability to diagnose early effects of tobacco use on oral health and general health has made the dental clinics to the appropriate place to provide smoking cessation counseling. The aim of this study was to determine the effectiveness of an educational intervention using Trans Theoretical Model (TTM) on the smoking cessation in patients attending dental clinics.

  Materials and Methods: This study was a quasi-experimental study conducted in 2013. 40 patients in the experimental and control groups were completed self-administered questionnaire including general and demographic questions, change questionnaire stages, change scale processes, smoking cessation self-efficacy scale, decisional balance scale before and 6 after months educational program. The experimental group received two training sessions through group discussion for 60 minutes. Data were analyzed using Chi-square tests, independent T-test, Mann-Whitney and Wilcoxon tests.

  Results: In terms of the patients distribution in the change stages (pre-contemplation, contemplation and preparation), there was no significant difference between the experimental (22.5, 35, 42.5%) and control groups (27.5, 35, 37.5%) before intervention (P = 0.55). However, 10 and 20 percent of patients in the experimental group was reported action and maintenance stage regarding smoking cessation after intervention (P<0.001). Results showed a significant increase in the mean score of experimental process of change, behavioral process of change, proc and self efficacy (P<0.001). Also, the mean score of cons constructs decreased significantly after education in the experimental group (P<0.001).

  Conclusion: Results indicated that the educational intervention using the TTM to increase the patients' smoking cessation rate was effective. Therefore, it is recommended that dentists have to become more familiar with TTM frameworks for smoking cessation.

Maryam Rabiei,
Volume 29, Issue 4 (1-2017)

Geriatric is a growing phenomenon which recently rises so fast. With increasing age, the biological and physiological changes occur in different organs. Socioeconomic situation with emerging multiple diseases, disability and changes in oral status can all affect the quality of life of people. The aim of this study was to overview on aging process and consideration on oral changes in particular.

This study was carried out by reviewing different scientific sources from Pub Med, Google scholar and Iranian articles (SID) since 2005 to 2016. Oral condition may be according to the systemic diseases or solely. The changes in the hard tissue and soft tissue occur. Each of these changes is the result of damage due to the people’s situations which sometimes make it difficult to repair.

Nevertheless, rising age in global and in Iran have to be considerd. Periodic visits are important because they reduce the risk of some diseases, including cancers in the mouth. Also, the influence of maintaining the oral and periodontal health conditions not only specifically in oral health but more broadly on some systemic diseases such as heart disease, lung disease, diabetes and etc. are quite important.

Simin Zahra Mohebbi, Katayoun Sargeran, Tahereh Hejrati,
Volume 30, Issue 2 (8-2017)

Background and Aims: Disabled individuals are involved with several oral health problems. The aim of this study was to assess the knowledge and perspective of dentists towards oral health promotion in disabled individuals.
Materials and Methods: Dentists participating in the fifty-fourth International Congress of Iranian Dental Association in 1392 in Tehran were invited. A valid and reliable questionnaire including the information about age, gender, city of practice, the working experience with the disabled was distributed. There were also 13 questions on knowledge and one question about the importance of training in the field of “oral health promotion of the disabled” in this questionnaire. The data were analyzed by linear regression model by SPSS 18 software.
Results: 117 questionnaires were collected and evaluated. The mean age was 35.5 (10.1) years. Among the participants, 53.8% were male and 46.2% were female. Average score of knowledge was 6.5 of the maximum attainable 13. Among the dentists, 60% believed that receiving education on oral health promotion for the disabled is important. Liner regression model which evaluated the effect of confounding factors showed that aging led to reduction in dentists' knowledge of oral health of the disabled. Furthermore, working experience with the disabled led to the increase in knowledge. Dentists who had previously treated a disable individual were more interested in receiving related training.
Conclusion: Knowledge of dentists in the field of oral health promotion of the disabled is not desirable while most dentists recognize the need for training. This issue emphasizes on the need for a broader educational effort.

Somayyeh Sheikhi, Hajar Shekarchizadeh, Zahra Saied-Moallemi,
Volume 31, Issue 3 (11-2018)

Background and Aims: Caregivers’ oral health literacy (OHL) can be effective in increasing their children’s knowledge, and can improve their oral health-related behaviors. This study aimed to investigate the relationship between mothers’ OHL and children’s oral health status.
Materials and Methods: We conducted a cross-sectional study on 202 6-year child/mother dyads in Semirom, Iran, applying a cluster sampling method. Self-administered questionnaires (Oral Health Literacy-Adult Questionnaire) requested information about mothers’ OHL. Children’s oral health status (dmft and pufa) was recorded via clinical examination. Pearson correlation coefficient, spearman correlation coefficient, independent T-test, and a linear regression model were used for statistical analysis.
Results: Among 202 pre-school children, 99 were girls (49%). The mean OHL score of mothers was 63.2 (Max achievable score=100, SD=18.9). Higher score of OHL among mothers was associated with their children’s less missing teeth (mt) and more filled teeth (ft) (P<0.05). No significant the association existed between the mothers OHL and their children’s dt, dmft, and pufa. Childrens of younger mothers, more educated mothers, and those with better oral health behaviors in terms of daily flossing and tooth brushing, showed lower scores of dmft and pufa (P<0.05).
Conclusion: A significant association revealed between mothers’ OHL and the oral health status of their children. Thus, it is recommended to increase mothers’ OHL to improve their children’s oral health status.

Sahar Balanian, Masood Mirzaee, Sara Jambarsang, Seyyed Abass Sadat Hosseini,
Volume 32, Issue 3 (11-2019)

Background and Aims: Regarding the high prevalence of caries and oral dental diseases, especially in the elderly, and the increasing attention of people to using the concept of quality of life, this study was conducted to determine the relation between oral and dental health and the quality of life in elderly people in Yazd.
Materials and Methods: This cross-sectional study was performed using data from the Yazd Public Health Survey (YAHS) with a sample of 9293 people, in 1393-94. All information was collected from 1907 elderly people aged between 60 to 70 years, including quality of life and oral and dental indexes from the comprehensive questionnaire of YAHS. Data were analyzed by independent t-test and Spearman correlation coefficient using SPSS16 software.
Results: There was a significant relationship between the quality of life and oral hygiene (P<0.01). Also, the score of quality of life and oral health was significantly related to education (P<0.01).
Conclusion: This study showed the positive relation between the oral health the quality of life. In addition, there was a quality of life level in the elderly people with poor oral hygiene.

Arezoo Khabazian, Fateme Azarnoosh, Sayed Mohsen Sadeghi,
Volume 33, Issue 2 (8-2020)

Background and Aims: Periodontal diseases are prevalent and are not only a threat to oral and dental health of patients and community, but also affect the quality of life associated with oral health. Therefore, the present study aimed to evaluate the effects of non-surgical periodontal therapy on the quality of life associated with oral health in patients with periodontitis and gingivitis.
Materials and Methods: 47 patients with gingivitis and moderate to severe chronic periodontitis referred to the periodontology department of Yazd Dental School in 2019 were studied. OHIP-14 validated questionnaire was used to assess the quality of life related to oral health. At the beginning of the study, both groups completed the questionnaire. Then scaling and root planning for periodontitis group and scaling for gingivitis group were done. Patients completed the questionnaires again 9-12 weeks after periodontal treatment. Data were analyzed by SPSS software version 22 using independent T-test, Chi-square, Mann-Whitney and Wilcoxon tests.
Results: The mean score of quality of life in patients with gingivitis was 19.18±11.68 before the treatment and 13.26 ±11.41 after treatment. The mean score of quality of life in patients with periodontitis was 23.29±9.80 before treatment and 13.95±9.68 after treatment. All the differences between groups before and after treatment were statistically significant (showing better quality of life after the treatment) (P<0.05). There was no statistically significant difference between the mean score of quality of life related to oral health in the studied patients according to the age and sex (P>0.05).
Conclusion: According to the results of this study, treatment of periodontal diseases improves quality of life related to oral health in patients with gingivitis and moderate to severe chronic periodontitis.

Yousef Ahmadpour, Simin Zara Mohebbi, Samaneh Razeghi,
Volume 33, Issue 3 (10-2020)

Background and Aims: Dental anxiety and fear can act as a barrier to seek dental care leading to insufficient oral health in people. The aim of this study was to determine the relations between dental fear and anxiety with dental caries status (DMFT) and clinical consequences of untreated dental caries (PUFA) among the adult patients referred to the faculty dental clinic of Tehran University of Medical Sciences.
Materials and Methods: In this cross-sectional study in 2019, the patients above 18 years old were assessed. Two standard questionnaires, Dental Fear Scale (DFS) and Modified Dental Anxiety Scale (MDAS), were used to assess the scores of dental fear, and dental anxiety, respectively. The demographic data of the patients were recorded. Dental caries status and clinical consequences of untreated dental caries, using DMFT and PUFA, respectively, were measured. Pearson correlation coefficients and multiple linear regression model (Backward method) were used for statistical analysis.
Results: Totally, 283 patients with the mean age of 38.6±11.8 years old participated. The mean scores of MDAS, and DFS were 12.04±4.49, and 41.33±16.87, respectively. Educational level (P=0.03, β=-0.14) and marital status (P=0.01, β=0.17) had significant relationships with MDAS scores. Moreover, a significant relationship was found between marital status and DFS scores (P<0.001, β=0.25). Significant correlations were found between dental anxiety level and D (P<0.001, r=0.36) and M components (P=0.02, r=0.14) of DMFT index. Moreover, there was a significant correlation between dental anxiety and U components of PUFA index (P=0.045, r=-0.12). Furthermore, the correlations between dental fear and D and M component of DMFT were significant (P<0.001, r=0.36; P<0.001, r=0.23; respectively).
Conclusion: Dental anxiety and dental fear were infrequent in the studied population; however, significant relationships were found between dental anxiety and dental fear with dental caries indices. Therefore, it was concluded that the more MDAS and DFS scores, the worse dental caries status.

Sahar Mohamadi, Borhan Moradveisi, Mohamad Aziz Rasouli, Faranak Shafiee,
Volume 33, Issue 3 (10-2020)

Background and Aims: The chronic blood disorders could have negative effects on various fields of patient’s quality of life. The aim of this study was to evaluate the relationship between the quality of life and oral health in major thalassemia and hemophilia patients.
Materials and Methods: This cross- sectional study was performed in 1398 on 56 hemophilia patients and 35 thalassemia major patients over 15 years of age. All the subjects were examined clinically to determine DMFT and CPITN, then the subjects completed OHIP-14, xerostomia, SF36 questionnaire. Data was analyzed with T-Test, ANOVA and Chi-square using Stata14.
Results: TThe mean age of hemophilia and beta-thalassemia patients was 32.3 and 26.2, the mean DMFT index was 8.75 and 7.6, and CPITN index was 2.02 and 2.26, respectively. Analysis of the components of the DMFT index showed a predominance of number of decayed teeth over filled teeth in both groups. According to the CPITN index, 19.6% and 20% of hemophilia and thalassemia patients had gingival healthy, respectively. The mean quality of life total scores in patients with hemophilia and thalassemia was 62.11 and 58.07, respectively. The mean DMFT had a significant negative relationship with the quality of life total scores in both groups (P<0.05). There was a significant relationship between different domains of quality of life and CPITN and OHIP-14 in thalassemia patients (P<0.05). Also patients with dry mouth had lower quality of life.
Conclusion: Hemophilia and thalassemia patients indicated undesirable oral health. It is necessary to improve multidimensional strategies in various fields of health care in patients.

Pedram Abedi, Maysam Mirzaee, Sahba Amini, Mohammad Mehdi Naghibi Sistani,
Volume 33, Issue 4 (1-2021)

Background and Aims: Information collection about the malocclusion and oral health in blind children is essential to plan for their education in schools. Therefore, this study aimed to evaluate the status of malocclusion and oral health among blind children and teenagers in Mazandaran, Iran.
Materials and Methods: The population of this included 150 blind children and teenagers aged from 10 to 18 years who were referred to the public and private centers cities including Sari, Babol, Freydoonkenar, and Babolsar in Mazandaran, Iran in 2019. Information on maxillary occlusion status, oral hygiene index, and DMFT index was extracted through clinical examination. Data were analyzed using SPSS23 software by ANOVA and Chi-square tests in addition to the descriptive statistics.
Results: The mean DMFT was 10.25 (SD 4.67). Oral hygiene status was good in 16% of participants, moderate in 82%, and poor in 2%. There was no significant difference between girls and boys in terms of oral hygiene status (P=0.5). In all cases, 35.8% had class I malocclusion, 29.8% had class II malocclusion, and 14.6% had class III malocclusion. Class II malocclusion was more common in girls and class I in boys (P=0.01).
Conclusion: Dental caries and occlusal abnormalities were common among blind children and adolescents living in Mazandaran province. Addressing the oral and dental needs of the blind should be a priority for health policymakers in this province in Iran.

Zahra Pooraskari, , Hossein Hessari, Reza Yazdani,
Volume 33, Issue 4 (1-2021)

Background and Aims: Pregnancy is a period with hormonal and psychological changes affecting women’s oral health. The aim of present review study was to evaluate, elaborate and categorize factors affecting oral health status of pregnant women.
Materials and Methods: A literature search with the following keywords: pregnancy, “pregnant women”, “pregnant mothers” and “expectant mothers” , AND dentistry, “dental health” and “oral health” in PubMed and Scopus was performed from 2009 to 2019. Search results included 1435 articles which 467 duplicate studies were excluded. Finally, 30 articles were included in the study. Oral health outcomes were categorized and significant relationships with determinants and risk factors were reported.
Results: Most studies (70%) were performed cross-sectionally. Among the studied outcomes, dental visit, periodontal disease and dental caries were the most common. The most studied independent variables were socioeconomic factors and demographic factors, followed by behavioral and enabling factors. The lowest frequency was related to the systemic factors. Mothers’ education and age were examined more than other variables and in about 40% of studies had significant association with outcomes. Dental counseling was assessed in only 3 studies and in all three studies, the relationship with outcome was significant.
Conclusion: Socioeconomic, demographic and enabling factors could affect the oral health of pregnant women.

Roshanak I Montazeri Hedesh, Ghazaleh Baniebrahimi, Roza Haghgoo, Kosar Alinejad,
Volume 34, Issue 0 (5-2021)

Background and Aims: Promoting children's oral health is the basis for increasing the level of community health and the goal of pediatric dentistry. By recognizing all the factors affecting the health and formation of the child's health habits, a fundamental step can be taken to promote oral health. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of parenting styles and demographic characteristic on OHI-S (Simplified Oral Health Index) in 2018.
Materials and Methods: In this cross-sectional study, 244 children aged 6-12 years in Behbahan-Iran with their parents were studied. The demographic questionnaire (variables such as parents 'age, economic status, gender, occupation and parents' education were recorded) and Bumrind questionnaire were used. The oral health status of children was assessed to determine the simplified oral hygiene index. Then, the obtained data were analyzed using SPSS 25 software and regression and Pearson correlation test.
Results:  The results showed that the children of parents who used the permissive method had higher score of simplified oral hygiene index (P<0.001) and simplified calculus index (P<0.001). However, in children of parents who used the authoritative parenting style, a decreased simplified oral hygiene index (P<0.001) and simplified debris Index (P<0.001) were observed. However, the method of authoritarian parenting style did not have a significant relationship with the simplified oral hygiene index (P=0.890), simplified calculus index (P=0.404), and simplified debris Index (P=0.721).
Conclusion: Powerful authoritarin and authoritative parenting practices have a clear impact on the oral health status of children. Therefore, parenting paratices can be considered as one of the main factors affecting the oral health of children.

Katayoun Sargeran, Simin Zahra Mohebbi, Afsaneh Tajik,
Volume 34, Issue 0 (5-2021)

Background and Aims: The increase in life expectancy and decrease in birth rate enhances the elderly population in different societies and consequently, the demand from the health system for providing the treatment needs has been elevated. It has been proposed that dentists must improve their attitude, knowledge, and practice to meet these needs. The present study aimed to assess the knowledge, attitude, and practice of general dentists regarding geriatric oral health.
Materials and Methods: In this descriptive-analytic cross-sectional study, 150 general dentists participating in the annual congress of the Iranian Dental Association in 2018 were selected and completed a valid and reliable self-administered questionnaire including 5 parts about knowledge, attitude and practice regarding old age and oral health of elders. SPSS23 and multiple regression were used for data analysis.
Results: The mean age of dentists was 34.3 (SD: 9.1) and 92 (61.3%) of participants were women. The mean knowledge score about the old age was 16.67 (of maximum: 26, SD: 4.31) and the mean knowledge on the geriatric oral health was 11.01 (of maximum: 18, SD: 2.81). The mean general attitude about elderly was 19.1 (of maximum: 30, SD: 4.26), the mean attitude on geriatric oral health was 13.09 (of maximum: 20, SD: 2.65), and the mean practice about geriatric oral health was 6.5 (of maximum: 10, SD:2.96). Age was significantly associated with knowledge regarding the elderly (P<0.034); i.e. with increase in age lower scores in knowledge were gained.
Conclusion: General dentists participating in the congress of the Iranian Dental Association demonstrated a medium level of knowledge, attitude, and practice regarding the oral health of elders. Proper educational programs should be planned in dental schools to improve dental student's knowledge, attitude and practice about geriatric oral health.

Bita Heydarzadeh, Bahareh Tahani, Imaneh Asgari,
Volume 34, Issue 0 (5-2021)

Background and Aims: School teachers have key role in providing the basic health information for their students, and their knowledge, attitude, and practice affect children's oral health through developing of the healthy behaviors. The goal of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of an oral health education program for primary school teachers on their knowledge, attitude, and practice fields in the framework of oral health promoting schools.
Materials and Methods: This quasi-experimental pre-post study was conducted among five oral health promoting schools in Isfahan city in 2019. A validated and reliable questionnaire including four sections of demographic data, knowledge, attitude, and practice was applied for data collection. The questionnaire contained 24 knowledge, 9 attitudes, and 5 practice questions. It was distributed among 63 enrolled teachers at base line and two months later after two educational-emotional workshops. Before and after data were analyzed by SPSS21 (α=0.05) by related samples Wilcoxon signed rank test and background variables by Kruskall-wallis test.
Results: After the educational intervention, their knowledge score increased significantly from 14.1±3.8 to 18.5±3.7 (P<0.001). About 34% of teachers had a high level of knowledge proficiency at the beginning of the study which eventually rose to 76%. Teachers’ attitude decreased significantly from 34.6±5 to 31.4±4.6 (P<0.001). At the beginning of the study, 89% of them had a positive attitude towards oral health programs which decreased to 84% at the end of the study. In the performance part, 63.5% of the teachers paid attention to the fluoride in their toothpaste which reached 87.3% after the workshop and the teachers' performance score increased from 3.07 to 3.39 after the intervention (P<0.012).
Conclusion: The package of educational intervention for teachers in oral health-promoting schools improved the level of knowledge and practice, but slightly reduced the level of attitude. However, due to the importance of changing attitudes in teachers and the existence of structural and programmatic barriers to integrate the health issues into school education, other models need to be evaluated and compared.

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