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A. Mehri, M. Morowatisharifabad,
Volume 22, Issue 1 (8-2009)

Background and Aim: It is necessary to assess health status for designing and programming about oral health behaviors. In this study the Effectiveness of Health Promotion Model in Predicting oral health among the Students of Islamic Azad University of Sabzevar was examined.

Materials and Methods: This was a descriptive-analytic, cross-sectional study. A random (stratified) sample of 250 university students in Islamic Azad university of Sabzevar, participated in the study. Appropriate instruments were designed to measure the variables of interest based on health promotion model. Reliability and validity of the instruments were examined by a panel of experts and cronbach alpha (N=30,α=0.65-0.81) respectively. The data were analyzed by SPSS 11.5 Statistical Software using Spearman Coefficient, Path analysis based on regression and ANOVA.

Results: The mean of oral health behaviors among students was moderate (19.17±3.91 out of total 36).Statistically significant differences were found in oral health behaviors and the model variables by parent education (P<0.05). The results showed that the model variables were related to oral health behaviors of the students (P<0.05).Self-efficacy,interpersonal influences,positive emotion, perceived barriers and commitment to plan of action as variables of HPM model explained 29% of oral health behaviors among subjects within which self-efficacy was the strongest predictor)β=0.252).

Conclusion: Although the mean of oral health behaviors was moderate among the subjects, but it should be promoted because of their great importance on the individuals' health. It was concluded that the Health Promotion Model may be used as a framework for planning intervention programs in an attempt to improve the oral health behaviors of the university students.

A. Taghizadeh Ganji , A. Jafari, N. Poorgholi, H. Iranizadeh,
Volume 22, Issue 3 (12-2009)

Background and Aim: School health workers have an important role in education and prevention of common oral and dental diseases. An organized program can be helpful in training and shaping the proper behavior. This study has evaluated the knowledge, attitude and practice of schools health workers in Tabriz about oral and dental health in 2007-2008.
Materials and Methods: This cross-sectional and descriptive study was performed in primary schools in Tabriz. Questionnaires were sent to the schools that had health workers. Levels of the knowledge, attitude and practice of the health workers who had answered this questionnaire were evaluated. SPSS software and independent T-Test and Paired- Sample T-Test were used for analyzing the results.
Results: Fifty eight out of 64 school health workers were women. Mean age of school health workers was 45 years. Forty four of school health workers had passed special course about oral health and dental health. 49 of them had passed special educational course the mean of acquired knowledge score was 6.77 out of 10 and women's scores were significantly higher. Also women had more work experience than men. The mean of acquired attitude and practice scores were 7.42 and 7.14 out of 10, respectively.
Conclusion: Findings show that performing of the educational courses during work and experience has an effective role in the scales of the health workers. Progress in this situation can be achieved by retraining programs and accessible pamphlets.

A. Jafari, Mr. Khami, R. Yazdani, M Mohammadi,
Volume 22, Issue 4 (1-2010)

Background and Aims: The objective of the present study was to investigate knowledge and attitude of senior dental students towards HIV/AIDS. Its result could help in promotion of education.

Materials and Methods: This educational research was carried out in two state dental schools in Tehran. The senior dental students in Tehran and Shaheed Beheshti dental schools were asked to fill in a self-administered questionnaire regarding their age, gender, parents' job, knowledge and attitudes towards treatment of patients with HIV/AIDS in Autumn semester 2007. Fifty five dental students (83%) including 27% male and 73% female in Shaheed Beheshti and fifty five dental students (85%) including 34% male and 66% female in Tehran dental schools were participated. The score for knowledge and attitude of the students were calculated separately. The data were analyzed using Independent sample t-test.

Results: The mean percentage of knowledge and attitude scores were 76.5% (at rang 1-3) and 50% (at range 1-5), respectively. Nearly all of the students believed that all patients should be considered as HIV positive in dental practice, while 49% preferred to refer HIV positive patients. Knowledge and attitude of students were not significantly associated with the gender and knowing HIV positive person (P>0.05).

Conclusion: There is a need to improve knowledge and attitudes of dental students towards HIV/AIDS. It is suggested to emphasize on this subject in dental schools curriculum in Iran.

Hadi Ghasemi, Mohammad Reza Khami,
Volume 25, Issue 1 (4-2012)

Background and Aims: The present study aimed to evaluate the barriers to the production of scientific dental articles in dental schools in Iran based on the opinions of dental postgraduate students.

Materials and Methods: A self-administered questionnaire was distributed among postgraduate students of all Iranian dental schools in June 2010. The respondents rated their agreement with eight sentences about what hinder them from producing scientific dental articles based on a 5-grade Likert scale. The data were analyzed using Chi-square test.

Results: Totally, 270 filled questionnaires from 14 dental schools were received. Of all respondents, 53% were male, the mean age were 29.6 ± 3.8. About half of the respondents reported at least one published article. Less than half of the respondents reported producing an article from undergraduate thesis more women than men and more younger than older students (P<0.03). About two-third of the respondents rated absence of an English editing center, no financial incentives, no appropriate environment, and no competency for scientific writing as most prevalent barriers to the production of scientific dental articles.

Conclusion: To expand the share of Iran in the production of scientific dental documents, the potential of postgraduate dental students must be regarded and suitable condition for scientific writing must be provided. Specifically, based on the findings of the present study, provision of an English editing facility, establishing financial incentives, and providing the students with appropriate environment and efficient scientific writing education are of utmost importance.

Reza Yazdani, Hamide Kalkou, Mohammadreza Khami ,
Volume 26, Issue 3 (8-2013)

  Background and Aims: Iatrogenic damage to adjacent tooth during proximal cavity preparation is one of the most common side effects in operative dentistry. The aim of this study was to determine prevalence of iatrogenic damages to adjacent tooth during the preparation of proximal Class II cavities among undergraduate students at dental faculty of Tehran University of Medical Sciences in 2010 .

  Materials and Methods: 106 posterior permanent teeth which had Class II decay with sound proximal surfaces of adjacent teeth were selected and restored by dental students awarding the aims of the present study. After finishing restoration, proximal surfaces were completely dried by air and evaluated with dental chair light. In doubtful cases, surfaces were evaluated with × 3 magnification. Damages were classified into 2 groups abrasion and groove. Data were analyzed using Fishers exact and Pearson chi square tests .

  Results: The frequency of adjacent surfaces damage were 57.5%, with 31.1% damages as abrasion and 26.4% as groove. Students who used matrix band and wedge in proximal area as preventive instruments showed 53.4% damages and other students showed 57.3% damages (P>0.05). A significantly higher number of females and students at restorative course level (3) used wedge and matrix band than males and students at restorative course level (4) for protecting adjacent teeth (P<0.05).

  Conclusion: According to the high percentage of iatrogenic damages on adjacent sound teeth in class II cavity preparation, teaching of preventive methods and using proper techniques is necessary for dental students as future dentists.

Fateme Mokhtari, Mohammad Hossein Yosefi, Ali Gharaati Jahromi,
Volume 27, Issue 2 (6-2014)

  Background and Aims: Root canal therapy is one of the most important parts of a general dentist's profession. The aim of this study was to evaluate the radiographic quality of root canal therapy performed by under graduated students at Yazd dental school.

  Materials and Methods: Records of patients, who were referred to the endodontic department during 2010-2012 and treated by undergraduated students, were divided into three groups by the numbers of canals and 80 specimens from each group were randomly evaluated. For the assessment, the quality of accomplished treatments, the indices: length, taper, and density of obturation were used and the errors during root treatment were recorded. Data were analyzed using Fisher's exact test and Chi-square.

  Results: According to the results, 155 (64.6%) records had appropriate filling length, whereas 55 (22.9%) were underfilled and 30 (12.5%) were overfilled. The acquired difference was statistically significant among three groups. (P<0.001). 187 (77.9%) records had adequate taper and 157 (65.4%) records had adequate density. The difference in the evaluating of taper (P=0.976) and density (P=0.879) was not significant. Totally, 39.2% of specimens had all the properties of an appropriate root canal treatment.

  Conclusion: The results of the present study can be used to identify weaknesses in the treatment of different educational groups and help them to achieve a proper planning to improve the quality of endodontic treatments.

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Volume 27, Issue 4 (1-2015)

  Background and Aims: Oral health is an important issue in public health with a great impact on individuals’ general health status. A good access to oral healthcare services and a good knowledge of it play a key role in the oral disease prevention. A better health attitude and practice require a better knowledge. The aims of this study was to evaluate the oral health knowledge among the International students branch (Kish) of Shiraz University of Medical Sciences in 2011-12.

  Materials and Methods: 159 pre-clinical students in medicine (54 students), dentistry (69 students) and pharmacy (36 students) participated in this research. A standard questionnaire was used as the main tool of research to evaluate the attitude and knowledge of students about the oral health. Data were analyzed using Chi-square test.

  Results: According to the results, dental students had the best level of knowledge and pharmacy students had a better knowledge level compared to the medical students. The results also showed a significant relationship between students’ oral health knowledge and their field and duration of study and the place of their secondary school (P<0.05), while no significant relationship was observed between their oral health knowledge and their gender or their parents’ educational level (P>0.05).

  Conclusion: The results showed that the students at the International Branch of Shiraz University of Medical Sciences had a relatively good knowledge of oral health. Students’ knowledge level can be improved by providing students with educational materials, organized workshops and seminars.

Shirazian Shiva , Arash Mansourian, Mehdi Vatanpour, Fatemeh Tirgar,
Volume 28, Issue 3 (10-2015)

Background and Aims: The purpose of the present study was to investigate the relationship between study skills and academic performance of dental students in Tehran University of Medical Sciences.

Materials and Methods: 195 dental students at dental faculty of Tehran University of Medical Sciences in 2013 participated in this descriptive-analytical study. Data were collected using Congos´ Study Skills Inventory including six subscales. Grade Point Average (GPA) indicated their academic performance. Data were analyzed using ANOVA and Tukey test.

Results: The mean score of students’ study skills were 108 out of 200 with standard deviation of 22.06±0.7. Note taking had a significant correlation with GPA (P=0.015).

Conclusion: Since no significant correlation between study skills and academic performance of the students was observed, it seems that there are other dynamics involved in their academic performance which have to be examined.

Pouyan Amini Shakib, Taraneh Movahhed, Hooman Keshavarz,
Volume 28, Issue 3 (10-2015)

Background and Aims: Choosing an appropriate style of teaching-learning by educators is a way to reach high quality education. The objective of this study conducted in Babol Dental School was to compare dental students, satisfaction of teaching theoretical general pathology course by means of a combination of lecture and work in small groups with their satisfaction of teaching the course by means of only lecture.

Materials and Methods: This study was performed in the second semester of school year 2011-12 and 2012-13. In 2012 (intervention group, response rate=92%), the teaching of theoretical general pathology course was implemented by means of a combination of lecture and work in small groups, but in 2013 (control group, response rate=81%) by means of only lecture. An anonymous self-administered questionnaire was used to assess students, satisfaction of the teaching methods. To compare the mean total score of satisfaction (ranging from 18 through 90) between the two groups, T-test was used.

Results: Comparing the mean total scores between the two groups revealed that students, satisfaction of the combined teaching method was significantly higher (P<0.001). The difference of satisfaction between genders (separately for each group) was not significant in combination group and lecture group (P=0.63 and P=0.87,   respectively).

Conclusion: Regarding learning, combining lecture with other teaching methods such as work in small groups may increase health sciences students' satisfaction. In regard to teaching theoretical general pathology course, our findings could confirm this hypothesis.

Arash Mansourian, Shiva Shirazian, Mohammad Jalili, Mehdi Vatanpour, Leila Pour Momen Arabi,
Volume 29, Issue 3 (10-2016)

Background and Aims: The objective of this study was the development of a checklist for assessment of students’ clinical skills in the clinical oral medicine. The second aim was the assessment of stake holders’ satisfaction of this checklist in comparison to the routine global rating method.

Materials and Methods: The checklist was developed in an expert panel sessions and the validity and reliability of checklist were assessed by CVI and test-retest method, respectively. All students (n=66) were assessed in 2 groups, one with developed checklist and another with global rating. At the end of the session, the satisfaction’s level of staff and students were analysized using Wilcoxon and Mann-Whitney test and the mean scores of students were analysized using Paired T test.

Results: Content validity index (CV I) of checklist was 0.88. Reliability of checklist confirmed with high correlation coefficient (0.9). Staffs’ satisfaction had no significant difference between the two methods
(Wilcoxon P=0.06). The mean score of students who assessed by checklist was higher than global rating with no significant differences (P=0.06).

Conclusion: Regarding the higher students’ satisfaction from checklist and more attention to component of assessment and more objectivity of this method and also higher score in checklist, it seems that the use of a checklist is more proper method for assessing the students’ clinical skills.

Sayed Mohsen Hosseini, Fateme Bagheri, Faranak Farahmand, Asiye Heydari, Elahe Khorasani,
Volume 29, Issue 4 (1-2017)

Background and Aims: Nowadays, oral cancer is considered one of the most important diseases related to oral health. The objective of the present study was to determine the dental students’ knowledge in Isfahan about oral cancer and the comparison of the level of students' knowledge in different years of education.

Materials and Methods: The present study was a cross-sectional-analytical one conducted in 2013. The population of study included the dental students of private and state University of Isfahan which 255 students were randomly selected. The data were collected using questionnaire and were then analyzed using SPSS software program and Kruskal-Wallis and Mann-Whitney.

Results: From private and public dental schools in Isfahan, 56% and 44% of dental students were involved. Regarding performing routine clinical oral examination, 81% of the participants answered positively, which showed no significant difference among the years of education of the participants (P=0.116). Regarding the examination of patients with oral lesions, 46% of them answered positively, which the difference between the years of education was highly significant (P≤0.001).

Conclusion: The findings of the research indicated that the level of knowledge of dental students of Isfahan city regarding the detection of oral lesions was not sufficient. Although, the students did not perform common examinations for exploring oral cancer, they did not have sufficient knowledge regarding some of the risk factors and oral lesions related to cancer. Therefore, it is necessary that a comprehensive curriculum be developed in this regard for their education.

Mohammad Reza Khami, Hooman Keshavarz, Samaneh Razeghi,
Volume 30, Issue 1 (6-2017)

Background and Aims: Opinion of students regarding the content, structure and quality of their training is a fundamental part of holistic evaluation of curriculum, and serves as an important information resource in policy making. In the present study, we aimed to contribute to the development, assessment and evaluation of the new national dental curriculum through evaluation of last-year dental students’ opinions regarding undergraduate dental curriculum.

Materials and Methods: This cross sectional questionnaire survey was done in 2010-2011 academic year. The target population was last-year dental students in 15 Iranian state dental schools. In these schools, all last-year dental students were invited to participate in the study. The chi-square test served for statistical analyses.

Results: In total, 432 students (68.4% female) participated in the study. Of the respondents, 72.4% (60.7% of male and 77.6% of female, P=0.001) believed that their undergraduate dental training had been completely inadequate or inadequate. Only about one third of students believed that educational methods during their undergraduate dental training had been appropriate or completely appropriate.

Conclusion: In general, it seems that undergraduate dental training from students’ view point has not been appropriate in terms of both content and method. The results show the necessity of revision of national undergraduate dental curriculum.

Mohammadreza Khami, Shima Ghorbani, Mahdi Hasanpour,
Volume 32, Issue 2 (10-2019)

Background and Aims: Due to high mortality rate and cost of smoking, WHO has emphasized on the role of dentists in smoking cessation among patients. The aim of the present study was to investigate the dental students, knowledge toward health consequences of smoking, their attitude towards smoking cessation activities, and their education programs in this field.
Materials and Methods: In this cross-sectional study, the target group was senior dental students at Tehran and Shahid Beheshti Universities of Medical Sciences, and Azad and Shahed Universities. A questionnaire was used to collect data in addition to background information, on the knowledge, attitudes, and education towards tobacco cessation counseling in dental practice was administered to the students. The sampling method was census. Data were analyzed using oneway Anova followed by Turkey HSD post-hoc test for pairwise comparison.
Results: Overall 138 students participated in this program (The response rate was 100%). Of the maximum achievable knowledge score (28), the average knowledge score in Tehran University was 22.8, in Shahid Beheshti University 20.31, in Azad University 22.31, and in Shahed University 22.16 (P=0.027) with significant statistical differences. However, But the average of attitude and education score of the students did not vary significantly (P>0.05).
Conclusion: Most of the students had sufficient knowledge about the risks of tobacco use and positive attitude toward tobacco cessation counseling. It was concluded that the students would only pay attention to the principals of smoking cessation counselling when they actually believe in them. Therefore, in order to improve the performance of students, training should be given on tobacco cessation techniques at the dental schools, thus, that students could play an effective role in tobacco cessation counseling for patients.

Azam Ahmadian Yazdi, Samareh Mortazavi, Hosein Saeedi Moghaddam,
Volume 32, Issue 3 (11-2019)

Background and Aims: Dental diagnosis may be affected by the occurrence of the errors in the intra-oral radiographic images and the patients’ treatment plan can be problematic in these cases. The repetition of these radiographs increases the risks of radiation exposure for the patients in turn. The present study assessed the incidences of common periapical radiographic errors taken by dental students in oral and maxillofacial radiology department of Mashhad dental school in 2017.
Materials and Methods: In this cross-sectional descriptive study, 1470 periapical radiographs prepared by student during a semester of 2017 were collected and evaluated. Radiographic observations were done and the incidence of conventional radiographic errors were determined. Finally, the frequency and percentage of radiographic errors were determined based on the type of radiography sex, the age of the patient, and the history of radiography. Then, results were analyzed using the Chi-Square test and SPSS19 (P=0.05).
Results: Film placement (27.2%), cone-cut (27.2%), elongation (13.2%) and horizontal angle (10.9%) were reported as the most common radiographic errors. The repetition rate of the radiographs was 2.9%; among them, the highest errors were Cone-cut errors in the upper jaw
Conclusion: Based on the results of this study, the most radiographic errors included film position and Cone-cut errors and these two errors were the most frequent cause of repetitive radiographies that required the provision of specific training for the prevention of these errors.

Shiva Shirazian, Sakineh Nikzad Jamnani, Maryam Memarian, Homa Shaghi,
Volume 33, Issue 1 (7-2020)

Background and Aims: Due to the very high importance of assessing the clinical performance of students, choosing the best assessment tool and method is one of the most important goals and tasks in medical education. The objective of this study was the development of a checklist for the assessment of dental students’ clinical skills of Tehran University of Medical Sciences, in the clinical complete denture course. The second aim was to determine the validity and reliability of the checklist, and The third aim was the evaluation of raters’ and students’ satisfaction.
Materials and Methods: The checklist was developed in expert panel sessions, and the validity and reliability of the checklist were assessed with CVI (content validity index) test-retest and inter-rater reliability methods, respectively. Students (n=15) were evaluated with a developed checklist. At the end of the session, the satisfaction level of staff and students were assessed. The obtained information was reported descriptively with the expression of mean and standard deviation and in the form of relative and absolute frequencies.
Results: The content validity index (CVI) of the checklist was 0.96. The reliability of the checklist confirmed with a high Intraclass Correlation Coefficient (>0.8) (between 0.82-0.97) (P<0.05). The coefficient of agreement in inter-rater reliability was 0.99 (between 0.991-0.998). Raters’ and students’ satisfaction earned a high percentage of satisfaction.
Conclusion: The designed checklist has the optimal features of a good students’ clinical performance assessment tool; it seems that using this checklist can be an excellent alternative method to a global rating scale to assess the clinical skills of dental students in the complete denture courses.

Afsaneh Pakdaman, Sholeh Ghabraei, Mohammad Javad Kharrazi Fard, Ali Saadatpoor Moghaddam,
Volume 34, Issue 0 (5-2021)

Background and Aims: Supporting the preventive approach is important in training future dentists. The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the knowledge, attitude and practice of senior dental students regarding non-invasive management of dental caries.
Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted in 2019 using total sampling method and a valid and reliable questionnaire. Knowledge, attitude and self-reported practice of senior dental students regarding caries risk assessment (CRA) and management of lesions in two paper patients were assessed. The data analysis was performed using SPSS20 and the descriptive and analytical statistics were reported.
Results: In overall, 86 students (response rate=91%) were responded. In the knowledge section, caries history in the previous year, having frequent fermentable carbohydrate, xerostomia, and low socio-economic status were considered by more than half of students as factor for caries risk assessment. More than 90% of students had a positive attitude towards CRA in children. Nearly 50% of students tend to restore enamel lesions in proximal and occlusal surfaces in high-risk scenarios. There was significant association between the OHI instruction and debris index improvement (P=0.04) in the integrated comprehensive care clinic (TUMS). The linear regression analysis showed that there was no significant association between the demographic characteristics, place of education, previous course on the level of knowledge and attitude.
Conclusion: Senior dental students despite their general knowledge and positive attitude toward caries risk assessment, tended to aggressively manage the incipient lesions in the enamel and DEJ. Delivering prevention as integrated in the comprehensive care unit in order to improve oral hygiene status of patients is recommended.

Soheila Khalili, Hajar Shekarchizadeh, Afsaneh Pakdaman,
Volume 35, Issue 0 (5-2022)

Background and Aims: For dental students, communication skills are essential to effectively transfer the necessary information to the patient and meet the patient’s needs and expectations. Therefore, this study was conducted to determine the patient communication skills of dental students at Islamic Azad university of Isfahan in 2021.
Materials and Methods: In the present cross-sectional analytical study, an online standardized questionnaire DCCC (Dental consultation communication checklist) was provided to all clinical dental students applying a census sampling method. In total, from 248 clinical dental students, 230 students participated in the study (response rate=92.7%). The questionnaire included five dimensions of introduction, medical history, clinical examination, closure and patient. In order to determine the patient communication skills, its dimensions, and the association between patient communication skills and students’ demographic characteristics, friedman test, analysis of variance, independent t-test and a linear regression model were used for statistical analysis.
Results: The mean score of total communication skills of the students (117.16±15.6) was above average which was obtained from the maximum score of 155. There was a significant difference between the dimensions of communication skills (P<0.001). The highest scores were assigned to the clinical examination, patient, medical history, introduction and closure, respectively. No significant relationship existed between the score of students' communication skills with gender (P=0.08), age (P=0.17), marital status (P=0.19), and educational background in psychology (P=0.07). No significant relationship revealed between the total score of communication skills (P=0.92) and its dimensions (introduction P=0.79, medical history P=0.90, clinical examination P=0.77, closure P=0.35, and patient P=0.85) with the students’ academic year.
Conclusion: The total score of dental students’ communication skills and all its dimensions was above average. However, students reported poorer performance in dimensions of introduction and closure than the other dimensions. Therefore, it is recommended to design and implement educational interventions specially to improve the dimensions of introduction and closure.

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