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Showing 10 results for Panoramic Radiography

Mt. Chiisazi , Kaviarri F., J. Yazdani ,
Volume 17, Issue 4 (1-2005)

Statement of Problem: In spite of the limitations of Radiography, diagnosing of periodontal diseases without having accurate radiographs is inadequate because it provides a visible image of the supporting bone to the clinician and works as a fixed measure of the supporting bone during the study.
Purpose: The aim of this study is to compare the precision of preiapical, bitewings and panoramic radiographs in determining the distance between the alveolar crest (AC) and cementoenamel junction (CEJ) of teeth.
Materials and Methods: Statistically this is a survey study in which 120 interproximal surfaces of teeth were measured during surgery by periodontal probing and recorded as the actual measurement. Then 40 sites underwent bitewing, 40 sites preapical and 40 others panoramic radiography and the distance of CEJ up to the alveolar crest of bone was measured on them by periodontal probe and recorded. Then each group was analyzed separately and the Pearson's correlation coefficient was examined for the data.
Results: The results of this study showed that when the thickness of the remaining bone in a millimeter limit
is important for (he surgeon, the bitewing radiography has a prime importance, but when bone loss is
moderate, the panoramic radiography showing %89 of the cases close to the actual measure, can be
acceptable. On the other hand, in anterior sites for determining the bone alteration, preiapical radiography
with a 0.93 correlation coefficient is superior to the panoramic radiography with a correlation coefficient of
0.72 and we suggest it for examining the changes of bone in these sites.
Conclusion: whenever the bone alteration is moderate or severe, it seems that, bitewing radiography is of
particular importance, but when the bone loss is little, panoramic radiography can be used and there is no need
to put the patient on unnecessary radiation.
H. Bashizadeh Fakhar, F. Abolhasani, T. Mohtavipour,
Volume 21, Issue 1 (10-2008)

Background and Aim: Accurate bone measurements are essential to determine the optimal size and length of dental implants. The magnification factor of radiographic images may vary with the imaging technique used. The purpose of this study was to compare the accuracy of linear tomography and panoramic radiography in vertical measurements, as well as the accuracy of linear tomography in mandibular width estimation.

Materials and Methods: In this test evaluation study, the vertical distances between the crest and the superior border of the inferior alveolar canal, marked with a metal ball, was measured by linear tomography and panoramic radiography in 23 sites of four dry mandible bones. Also the mandibular width was measured at the same sites. Then, the bones were sectioned through the marked spots and the radiographic measurements were compared with actual values.

Results: The vertical magnification factor in tomograms and panoramic radiographs was 1.79 (SD=0.17) and 1.69 (SD=0.23), respectively. The horizontal magnification of tomograms was 1.47 (SD=0.17). A significant correlation was found between the linear tomographic and actual values, regarding vertical dimensions (p<0.001, r=0.968) and width (p<0.001, r=0.813). The correlation was significant but lower in panoramic radiographs (p<0.001, r=0.795). Applying the magnification values suggested by the manufacturer, the mean difference of vertical measurements between the tomographic sections was 2.5 mm (SD=3.4) but 3.8 mm (SD=1.65) in panoramic radiographs. The mean of absolute difference in mandibular width between the tomographic sections and reality was 0.3mm (SD=1.13). In the linear tomograms, 4.3% of vertical and 56.5% of the width measurements were in the ±1mm error limit. Only 4.3% of the vertical measurements were within this range in the panthomographs. The linear regression equation between the actual values and those obtained by radiography in vertical dimensions showed that 87.5% of tomograms and 51.8% of panoramics were located in the ±1 mm error limit.

Conclusion: Based on the results of this study, the linear tomography is more accurate than panoramic radiography in mandibular height estimation. The accuracy of linear tomography in width estimation is within acceptable limits.

F. Ezoddini Ardekani, Z. Mohammadi, Z. Hashemian, M. Sadrbafghi, A. Hedayati, Mj. Rahmani Baghemalek,
Volume 22, Issue 1 (8-2009)

Background and Aim: Dental pulp calcification may have the same pathogenesis as vascular calcifications. Pulp stones are calcified mass, which are commonly observed in usual dental radiographs. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the relationship between pulp stones and ischemic CVD.

Materials and Methods: This was a cross-sectional descriptive-analytic study on 20-25-year-old patients who had at least 8 intact teeth and were referred to Afshar hospital for cardiovascular examinations. Relationship between vascular stenosis and dental pulp stone was explored.

Results: Sixty one patients who had undergone angiography were studied. They included 32 male (52.5%) and 29 female (47.5%). 38 patients had at least one stenotic vessel (from one to three vessels) and the others (37.7%) showed normal angiographic findings. 73.8% (31 cases) of the patients with dental pulp stones suffered from coronary narrowing where as only 36.8% (7 cases) of the patients without dental pulp stones showed coronary vessels narrowing. Pulp stones were mostly seen in first and second Molar teeth.

Conclusion: According to the results, we can state that oral and maxillofacial radiology is helpful in screening of cardiovascular diseases.

Smh. Hosseini , J. Chalipa , Sm. Fatemi , F. Heidari ,
Volume 23, Issue 2 (10-2010)

Background and Aims: The main purpose of orthodontic treatment is normal positioning of teeth in three dimensional plans, including the mesiodistal inclination. In this study, mesiodistal axial inclination of posterior teeth in skeletal class II was evaluated and compared with that of posterior teeth in skeletal class I.

Materials and Methods: Seventy-eight panoramic radiographs for subjects between 12 to 24 years old with skeletal class I and 78 panoramic radiographs for subjects between 12 to 19 years old with skeletal class II were selected. All of the subjects were in permanent dentition with no tooth missing, no tooth extraction, no impacted tooth, and no crowding in posterior teeth. Two reference lines were established over each radiograph: the upper one passing through the most inferior point of right and left orbits lower one passing through the right and left mental foramina. After that, the long axis of teeth was traced (the image of root canal in single-rooted teeth, mean image of buccal and palatal canals in upper premolars, mean image of mesial and distal canals in lower molars, and the image of palatal canal in upper molars.). The mean values for two skelotodental classes were analyzed using T-test.

Results: The results showed that there was significant difference between (P<0.05) mesiodistal axial inclination of teeth 15, 16, 17, 25, 26, and 27 in upper jaw in skeletal class II compared with that of the same teeth in skeletal class I, which was more mesially in skeletal class II. Mesiodistal axial inclination of teeth 36, 46, and 47 in lower jaw was more mesially in class II compared with that of the same teeth in class I. For other teeth there were no significant differences between two skeletodental classes (P>0.05).

Conclusion: The mesiodistal axial inclination of upper molars and second premolars and lower molars in class II was more mesially compared with that of the same teeth in class I.

D. Goodarzi Pour, S. Nejati, A. Fotouhi,
Volume 24, Issue 1 (3-2011)

Background and Aims: Conventional radiological equipments in our country are going to be converted to digital system using computed radiology (CR) technology. If we know the accuracy of digital panoramic radiography for detection of small defects in tooth, it will be useful in cases with difficulty for taking the intraoral radiographs. The aim of this study was to evaluate sensitivity and specificity of digital panoramic radiography for detection of proximal caries compared with the bitewing radiography.
Materials and Methods: One-hundred patients who had been ordered for taking both bitewing and panoramic radiography were included in this study. Panoramic and then bitewing radiographs were observed by a maxillofacial radiologist and interproximal caries were recorded. Sensitivity and specificity of digital panoramic radiography (CI=95%) was calculated compared with the bitewing radiography as a gold standard.
Results: This study showed that the values for sensitivity and specificity were 62.7% (CI 95%=57.7%-67.5%) and 91.0% (CI 95%=89.2%-92.5%), respectively.
Conclusion: Sensitivity of digital panoramic is less than bitewing radiography even with processing before printing. Therefore, bitewing radiography is superior for detection of inter proximal caries.

Sina Haghanifar, Valiollah Arash, Farhad Soboti, Nasim Jafari,
Volume 25, Issue 2 (4-2012)

Background and Aims: Apical root resorption is an adverse side effect of fixed orthodontic treatment which cannot be repaired. The aim of this study was to use panoramic radiographs to compare the root resorption before and after the orthodontic treatment with standard edgewise .018 appliance.

Materials and Methods: The before and after treatment panoramic views of sixty-three patients needed fixed orthodontic treatment included 1520 teeth were categorized into 3 Grades (G0: without resorption, G1: mild resorption with blunt roots or ≤ 1/4 of root length, G2: moderate to severe resorption or > 1/4 to 1/2 of root length. Relationship between root resorption and sex and treatment duration was analyzed with Mann-whitney and  Spearman's correlation coefficient, respectively.

Results: The findings showed that 345 teeth were categorized as Grade 1.  Grade 2 of root resorption was not found in this study. The highest amount of root resorption was recorded for the mandibular lateral incisor. In both gender, the root resorption of the mandible was more than that of the maxilla. The males showed significantly higher rate of resorption than the females (P<0.05). Root resorption was not significantly related to the treatment duration and the side of the jaws (P>0.05).

Conclusion: The mandible and male patients showed higher amount of root resorption. In addition, root resorption was not related to the treatment duration and the side of the jaws.

Horie Fakhar Bashizade, Neda Molaei, Ali Teimoorinezhad,
Volume 26, Issue 1 (3-2013)

Background and Aims: The Panoramic radiography is one of the routine techniques in implant imaging. Although there are some limitations with this technique, panoramic radiography is radiographic choice for basic evaluation for implant treatment. Many studies have been designed to determine magnification in panoramic images but most of them were performed on dry skulls or radiographic phantoms. In recent studies CT or CBCT are used as gold standard. The aim of this study was to determine vertical magnification of panoramic images using renovated CT sections in anterior and posterior regions of both jaws.

Materials and Methods: 30 panoramic radiographs (Planmeca EC or CC Proline) were selected from patients of implant department and Particular anatomic landmarks were selected in those images. Vertical dimensions of these landmarks were measured in both panoramic and renovated cross sectional CT images by a digital caliper and vertical magnification was calculated as the ratio of image dimensions to the real dimensions.

Results: The mean vertical magnification of panoramic radiographs in anterior and posterior maxillae were 1.22±0.02 and 1.16±0.02, respectively. The mean vertical magnification of panoramic radiograph in anterior and posterior mandible were 1.20±0.02 and 1.13±0.02, respectively. The differences between magnification in mandible and maxillae were significant (P<0.001). The differences between magnification in anterior and posterior regions of both jaws were not significant (P=0.11).

Conclusion: Vertical magnification of panoramic images (Planmeca EC or CC Proline) in different regions in both jaws were between 1.13 to 1.22.

Goudarzipoor Dariush , Sowdagar Ahmad , Romoozi Elham , Xiavi Hesam Mikaili , Faal Behzad Sheykh ,
Volume 27, Issue 4 (1-2015)

  Background and Aims: In the panoramic images, palatoglossal space error develops when the patient is unable to put the tongue against the mouth roof. In the case of this error, the radiographic diagnosis of the area is made with some difficulties or ever the image may lose its diagnostic ability. The aim of the present study was to investigate the relationship between the palatoglossal space error of the panoramic images and skeletal relationship.

  Materials and Methods: In this descriptive cross-sectional trial, 494 panoramic images were selected at the orthodontic department of Tehran dental school archive and the existence of the palatoglossal space was determined. The palatoglossal space error was statistically analyzed using chi-square test regarding the patients’ gender, age and skeletal relationships.

  Results: Of total panoramic images, 346 (70.0%) cases showed palatoglossal space error while 148 (30.0%) images were free from this error. Furthermore, 74.1% of male images and 66.9% of female images showed palatoglossal space error. In Cl I (1˂ANB≤3), Cl II and Cl III patients 65.6%, 73.1% and 67.4% of the images demonstrated the error, respectively. The incidence of palatoglossal space error in 5-14 and 15 years old age or higher patients were 72.2% and 58.8%, respectively.

  Conclusion: It was concluded that n o significant difference w as noted between the incidences of the palatoglossal space error regarding the patients’ gender or their skeletal relationships . T he error frequency was significantly decreased with age .

Seyedeh Tahereh Mohtavipour, Somayeh Nemati, Alieh Sadat Javadzadeh Haghighat, Seyedeh Saeedeh Mohtavipour, Mina Sadadt Mirkhani,
Volume 28, Issue 4 (1-2016)

Background and Aims: Elongation of styloid process may result in development of Eagle syndrome with associated symptoms. This study aimed to assess the frequency of elongated styloid process (ESP) and to evaluate its prevalence according to sex and age.

Materials and Methods: This study was conducted on digital panoramic radiographs of patients refered to the Oral Radiology Department of dental school, Guilan University of Medical Sciences. Styloid process length was measured and classified as elongated, pseudoarticulated, or segmented. Calcification patterns were determined as A, B, C, and D. ESP was defined as length > 30 mm. Data were analyzed by SPSS using T-test, Chi square, Pearson, and Spearman (P<0.05).

Results: A total of 505 digital panoramic radiographs taken from 227 males (45%) and 278 females (55%) aged 10 to 72 (40.1±12.9) years were evaluated. Elongated styloids were present in radiographs of 230 (45.5%) individuals. There was no significant difference in the ESP frequency between males (46.09%) and females (53.91%) (P=0.63). Type I and calcification B pattern showed more frequency than that of other categories.

Conclusion: According to these findings, elongated styloid process was a common condition among the studied population and had a significant correlation to the age.

Zahra Tafakhori, Ghazaleh Mostafazadeh, Mahmod Sheikh Fathollahi,
Volume 29, Issue 4 (1-2017)

Background and Aims: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the relationship between the mandible anatomy with age and gender in panoramic radiography of patients.

Materials and Methods: In this descriptive-sectional study, 322 panoramic radiography of patients at the age of 25-55 years old were evaluated. The patients were devided in three groups of 25-34, 35-44, 45-55 years old and the radiomorphometric indexes in panoramic radiography of the patients were measured. The collecting data were analyzed using independent two-sample t-test, one-way anova and multiple linear regression using SPSS statistical software (version 18).

Results: The average of radiomorphometric indexes don’t show a meaningfull statistical defference between different age groups. The average of all angles higher in females than that of males and other measured indexes were higher in males than females. Also, the mandibular foramen moved forward with the increase of age.

Conclusion: Based on the result of this study which was done on limited numbers, it can be concluded that the measured radiomorphometric indexes in this study didn’t have a high accuracy to predict Age and Gender.

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